PSYC 305 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Extraversion And Introversion, Open Data Protocol
Course CodePSYC 305
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PSYC 305 Lecture 2 – Getting Organized and Classified
1. How do we evaluate and study human personality?
2. What are the most important traits that make up human personality?
1. Descriptive Research:
◦Used to describe personality
◦What is a person’s level of extraversion?
2. Explanatory Research:
◦Used to discover relationships between traits or between personality and other phenomena
◦Is extraversion related to shyness?
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: SOURCES OF PERSONALITY DATA
1. Self-Reports (surveys) – S-Data:
◦Information provided by a person, through a survey or interview
◦Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else
-Different response types: Unstructured (open-ended) or structured
Forced-choice response formats (A or B)
2. Observer-Reports – O-Data:
◦Information provided by someone else about another person
◦Provides access to information not attainable through other sources
◦Multiple observers can be used to assess a person
-Examples: Naturalistic vs. Artificial Observation = Realistic Perspective vs. Controlled Setting
Professional Assessors vs. Friends and Family
3. Test-Data – T-Data:
◦Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations
◦To see if different people behave differently in identical situations
◦The situation is designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality/psychology
◦Elicited behavior is “scored” without reliance on inference
-Examples: Physiological measures (heart rate)
Activity or energy levels (using actometers)
Examining who takes leadership role in different conditions
4. Life History/Life-Outcome Data – L-Data:
◦Information that can be gathered from events, activities, and outcomes in a person’s life that is available for
-Examples: Marriage, Speeding tickets
EVALUATION OF PERSONALITY MEASURES
Validity: Degree to which a measure is accurate (i.e. measures what it is intended to measure)
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