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Lecture 2

PSYC 305 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Extraversion And Introversion, Open Data Protocol


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 305
Professor
David King
Lecture
2

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PSYC 305 Lecture 2 – Getting Organized and Classified
OVERARCHING QUESTIONS
1. How do we evaluate and study human personality?
2. What are the most important traits that make up human personality?
PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
1. Descriptive Research:
Used to describe personality
What is a person’s level of extraversion?
2. Explanatory Research:
Used to discover relationships between traits or between personality and other phenomena
Is extraversion related to shyness?
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: SOURCES OF PERSONALITY DATA
1. Self-Reports (surveys) – S-Data:
Information provided by a person, through a survey or interview
Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else
-Different response types: Unstructured (open-ended) or structured
Likert-type scales
Forced-choice response formats (A or B)
-Example: NEO-FFI
2. Observer-Reports O-Data:
Information provided by someone else about another person
Provides access to information not attainable through other sources
Multiple observers can be used to assess a person
-Examples: Naturalistic vs. Artificial Observation = Realistic Perspective vs. Controlled Setting
Professional Assessors vs. Friends and Family
3. Test-Data T-Data:
Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations
To see if different people behave differently in identical situations
The situation is designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality/psychology
Elicited behavior is scored without reliance on inference
-Examples: Physiological measures (heart rate)
Activity or energy levels (using actometers)
Examining who takes leadership role in different conditions
Measuring intelligence
4. Life History/Life-Outcome Data L-Data:
Information that can be gathered from events, activities, and outcomes in a persons life that is available for
public scrutiny
-Examples: Marriage, Speeding tickets
EVALUATION OF PERSONALITY MEASURES
Validity: Degree to which a measure is accurate (i.e. measures what it is intended to measure)
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