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Student Notes – Behavourism.doc

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PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

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History of Psychology Notes – Behavourism Clever Hans, the intelligent horse owner Wilhelm von Osten, believed animals differed from humans only by access to education taught horse skills respond with hoof taps or a nod public sensation, tours trickery or real intelligence? Stumpf’s grad student Oskar Pfungst discovered subtle NVB by questioners ; correct responses result of conditioned learning …..analyze animals, beh result as S-R; find the relationships Willard Stanton Small searching for effective animal beh. measurement methods created apparatus for wasps, chicks, white rats (with Linus Kline) introduced …… use of ___________ in psych research maze tasks (Y-maze): natural as possible Edward Lee Thorndike study beh, not conscious elements.. connectionism: b/w objective situations/stimuli and response fancied chicks puzzle boxes – to escape learn; log wrong beh, time… “trial and error/”trial and accidental success” Law of effect: connection strengthened when produces a “satisfying” result, weakened when produced an “annoying” result. Law of exercise/ use and disuse : connections strengthened with repetition/use, weakened with disuse also studied worker satisfaction, transfer effects of school subjects, produced children’s dictionaries Ivan Petrovich Pavlov rigorous control (e.g., Tower of Silence), standardized experiments conditioned reflexes – reflexes contingent on association b/w S+R Neutral stimuli/CS - (light), repeatedly paired (reinforcement) with US (food) = present CS, elicits CR (or reflex) Extinction: CS is presented repeatedly in absence of US, CS loses ability to produce salivary activity Spontaneous Recovery: following a period of rest, the CS can produce the CR Stimulus generalization: stimuli similar to CS could elicit CR Discrimination: small alterations in CS can alter CR ….also interestingly - Temperament: diff in dogs/breeds, explain lab result diffs - Experimental neurosis – responses, resistance to stress ultramaximal inhibition – brain inhibited (“shock” vacant stare, unresponsive) After-effects of U.I.: a) Equivalent phase: normalcy b) Paradoxical: strong stim, weak response (+vice versa) c) Ultraparadoxical: severe trauma, alterations in personality …interest in psychiatric illness (“breakdown”); impacted neuroscience John Broadus Watson deliberate school founding; unable to “introspect”, preferred science, then study objective beh. scandal; married 19yr old, “publicly” fell in love with student – resign from J.Hopkins Famous pub’s: “Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It” in Psych Review (1913); Intro to Comparative Psych (1914), Behaviourism (1925) Study behaviour through.. observe, test stimuli and responses, verbal responses (- this aspect challenged by “pure beh.”) conditioned reflexes (S-R), elements of behaviour – movements, physiological reactions; subjects act and experimenters observe (vs. observe self in introspect) Watson’s psychology tackled “classic” topics of psychology in behaviourist way: Instincts – denied existence (later), socially conditioned reponses, indiv. diffs. due to training (vs. Galton…and reflected shifting times) Thought Processes - reduced to motor beh, learned subvocal patterns Emotions – physiological response/change to stimuli (vs. James), fear, rage and love Studied infants, conditioned responses ____________: rat + noise=fear….of rat and other like-objects thus, can condition emotions to random stimuli …adult emotional disturbance due to conditioned infant, childhood responses set up program of childhood conditioning to prevent disorders in later adults child rearing instruction (“Psych Care of the Infant and Child”, 1928): objective beh toward children, unresponsive in affection or emotion…train them for later life “Great Promoter” of behaviourism: personal networks, personnel consultant, courses to business, military… …when financially broke: clerk, door to door market researcher “sold” beh to: advertising co.’s – eventually vice prez of J. Walter Thompson ad agency ..celebrity use, fear and love, create desire/avoidance.. …and the general public through radio magazines, newspapers ….. psychology overcame earlier positions and was captured by the public in yet another way William McDougall “hormic” nature: beh that satisfies needs role of instincts …when everyone else is environment paranormal study - telepathy, clairvoyance (established parapsych lab at Duke) emphasized social psychology ….debate with Watson at Psychology Club (1924)…when everyone else was entranced by Watson how to derive meaning or accuracy of behaviour without introspection, how to explain pleasure, daydreams… questioned lack of free choice or change after childhood 1930s: The Rise of Neobehaviorism …the development of learning theories by the “radical behaviourists” Hull, Tolman, Skinner, Guthrie. Endorsed: study of learning beh is result of conditioning adopt operationism: objective terminology, “discard pseudoproblems” Edward Chace Tolman He liked mazes dissatisfied with gestalt, Watson’s-style of beh. Purposive Behaviourism: beh. is driven toward some goal/purpose; learning is a mean
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