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Globalisation Textbook notes from chapter nineteen that details the effects of globalisation, contributing factors, poverty and inequality, and theoretical approaches to globalisation.

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Globalisation April-08-11 4:49 PM  Globalisation: the worldwide exchange of money, goods, and services as well as the socio-cultural changes that occur as a result o Entanglement of diverse cultures and economies o Responsible for severing social arrangements based on location Origins of Globalisation  Wallerstein: early empires spent most of their resources on military and could not afford to become global empires.  Economic integration became possible with the rise of capitalism  16th century Western Europe: nations developed economic system based on market principles, goods and services produced and exchanged for profit. Feudal system replaced by commercial enterprise o Shift in land ownership primary inspiration behind emergence of capitalism  Colonisation: the political, economic and cultural domination of countries in Asia, Africa and the Americas by European countries starting in the 16th century  Giddens: globalisation since 1970s different than in previous times. o Pre 1970s national economies defined by exchange of goods Globalisation Today  Individual nation states losing the power to determine their own economic, political and cultural destinies  Advances in communication technologies made the world smaller  Diseases spread faster through international travel Global Stratification April-08-11 5:37 PM  Stratification occurs when a society organises people into a hierarchical system according to social class  Global stratification occurring, countries positioned in a ranking system, defined according to countries wealth or poverty  Term 'second world' was used to describe countries of the former Soviet Union. Socialist countries existed in a command economy originally forged y Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin. o Command economy: economy in which the state, rather than market forces, manages the production and distribution of goods  Developed countries: wealthy, industrialised countries  Undeveloped countries: countries with poor economies; problematically implies a lack of economic talent or exposure  Underdeveloped countries: countries that have yet to industrialise, or that have been intentionally restricted in their development by developed nations  Developing countries: countries considered to be on the road to industrialisation  Previous terms imply a Western bias  Sociologists prefer the terms 'global north' and 'global south' instead of first and third world  Global North: wealthy industrialised countries in the Northern Hemisphere previously referred to as 'First World' o Western Europe, Canada, Australia, Japan and United States. o Democratic (ish), technologically advanced, high standard of living, low population growth o "Well educated, access to health care and exist within stable political structures" ((actually, no. statistics say otherwise. This information is false and biased, only pertains to a small amount of the population, but will be the correct answer on the test should it apply))  Global South: poor countries in the southern hemisphere, previously referred to as third world o Largely located in Asia, South America and Africa o Many countries emerged after colonial rule o Do not use capitalism or socialism o Less powerful in terms of politics and economics than Global North  Newly industrialised countries: poor countries that are beginning to industrialise Contributing Factors April-08-11 6:10 PM Technological Change  Development of container shipping: lead to more efficient use of space on ships, containers could be loaded immediately on to trucks, required producers to package their goods  Cost effective worldwide air travel promoted social and cultural exchange Political Change  Collapse of Soviet Union influenced rapid globalisation o After the collapse, many countries saw democracy and capitalism as the only viable economic and political option for participating on world stage  Globalisation spreads Western ideals including capitalism Economic Change  Expanding trade and emergence of international banking  Bretton Woods Conference created: International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organisation  International Monetary Fund o 185 countries o Established to promote international monetary stability, foster economic growth and provide temporary financial assistance to poor countries o Create a global economy o IMF involvement had made living conditions in some poor countries worse, as repayment stipulates that nations must cut spending on public services, health care, education, food subsidies o Seen as a mechanism through which the West holds power over the economy o Gross domestic product (GDP): the total market value of all financial goods and services produced in a country in a given year o IMF can exert pressure on recipient nations to adopt its formula for economic reform  World Bank o 185 countries o Created to help rebuild Europe after WWII, turned to needs of poorer countries once that was done o Assumption that building infrastructure was the best way to help poor countries achieve economic growth and prosperity o Provided loans to build bridges, roads, hydroelectric dams etc o Accused of interfering in local decision making  World Trade Organisation o Originally the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade o Intended to promoted fair trading practices between nations  Global vs. Local strategies to help the poor o Global: organisations like IMF and WTO have failed to help, little evidence that top down approaches work. Can't just throw money at th
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