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Sociology Term Test 1 and 2 Review This is a comprehensive review of all the material covered in class so far, including the most important material from the textbook, which was not mentioned during lectures.

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Test 1 WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY Sociology is the systematic study of human groups and their interactions It is the study of everything that people do Major areas of sociological inquiry includeSociological theoryCultureSocialization how do we become what we areGroups and organizations religion education healthcare etcCrime and devianceSocial stratification and classGlobal stratificationRace and ethnic relationsSex and genderReligionMass Media The Sociological perspective is a view of society based on the dynamic relationships between individuals and the larger social network in which we all live CHARLES WRIGHT MILLS AND THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION Charles Wright Mills defines sociological imagination as the ability to perceive how dynamic social forces influence individual lives In other words it is developing an appreciation of how individual challenges are influenced by larger social forces Personal troubles are personal challenges that require individual solutions Social issues are challenges caused by larger social factors that require collective solutions Quality of mind is Mills term for the ability to view personal circumstance within a social context Mills believed that everyone is influenced by society PETER BERGER Sociologists see the general in the particular They have the ability to look at seemingly unique events or circumstances and then recognize the larger or general features involved What societal factors lead to the particular effect Sociologists think about what is familiar and see it as strange See ordinary behaviour which is deemed normal and look at it from an outside perspective seeing it as strange 1Sociology 101ENGAGING YOUR SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION Our perception of ourselves and others are the products of many factors for exampleMinority StatusGenderSocioeconomic StatusFamily StructureUrbanRural Differences These factors shape what a person will become THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY The Scientific Revolution 16501800 AUGUSTE COMTE LAW OF THREE STAGES TheologicalThe longest period of human thinking starting with the middle ages Explains the world and human society as an expression of Gods will and views science as a means to discover Gods intentions MetaphysicalBegins with the Renaissance Assumes people could understand and explain their universe through their own insight and reflection Questions religious beliefs PositiveBegins during Comtes lifetime Society begins to see the world scientifically and to be guided by the rules of observation experimentation and logic POSITIVISM AND ANTIPOSITIVISM Positivism is a theoretical approach that considers all understanding to be based on science 1 There exists an objective knowable reality Truths exist which can be discovered and proven 2 Since all sciences explore the same singular reality over time all sciences will become more alike 3 There is no room in science for value judgments Science cannot be good or bad because it is exploring the same reality but from different perspectives AntiPositivism is a theoretical approach that considers knowledge and understanding to be the result of human subjectivity It challenges all positivist assumptions 1 The social world cannot be understood through numbers and formulas Numbers only have relative importance because their values have been assigned by man 2 All sciences will not merge over time and no single methodological approach can reach a complete understanding of our world Science cannot teach us to appreciate and validate emotions values and human subjectivity In fact in finding new areas of research all sciences will eventually become more unique over time 2Sociology 101
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