BIOL1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Blood Sugar, Glycogenolysis, Dehydration Reaction

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9 Aug 2016
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Lecture 14
Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed by a
dehydration reaction between two glucose molecules.
The most common disaccharide is sucrose, or table
sugar, which is composed of the monomers glucose and
fructose.
A long chain of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic
bonds is known as a polysaccharide.
The chain may be branched or unbranched, and it may
contain different types of monosaccharides.
Starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin are primary
examples of polysaccharides.
Plants are able to synthesize glucose, and the excess
glucose is stored as starch in different plant parts,
including roots and seeds.
Starch is the stored form of sugars in plants and is made
up of glucose monomers that are joined by α1-4 or 1-6
glycosidic bonds.
The starch in the seeds provides food for the embryo as
it germinates while the starch that is consumed by
humans is broken down by enzymes into smaller
molecules, such as maltose and glucose.
Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in humans and
other vertebrates.
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