ANP 1105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Ultimate Tensile Strength, Elastic Fiber, Reticular Fiber

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ANP1105 – Lecture 3
The Structural Organization of the Human Body
• Simplest level of structural hierarchy is chemical level
• Here, atoms combine to form molecules, (ex. water and proteins) which then form
Atom: smallest particle of an element with all of the properties of that element
Molecule: the smallest amount of a substance that can exist alone = a combination of
atoms. Are the building blocks of life
Organelle: molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles = basic components of
living cells Give 5 examples of organelles
Nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, and endoplasmic
Cell: fundamental structural & functional unit of a living thing; cells vary widely in size
& shape, reflecting unique functions in the body
• In complex organisms (humans), hierarchy continues to tissue, organ and organ system
Tissue: groups of similar cells that have a common function.
Organ: structure composed of at least 2 (but usually 4) tissue types that performs a
specific function for the body. Extremely complex functions become possible.
• Ex. Stomach’s lining is epithelium which produce digestive juices. The wall is muscle
which churns and mixes stomach contents. Its nerve fibers increase digestive activity by
stimulating the muscle to contract more vigorously and the glands secrete more digestive
Organ system: organs that work closely with one another to accomplish a common
• Ex: cardiovascular system that in which the heart and blood vessels circulate blood to
carry oxygen and nutrients to body cells.
• The highest level is the organismal level, which represents the sum total of all structural
levels working together to keep us alive.
Structure Function
Plasma membrane • Separates contents of cell from outside environment and regulates
what enters and exits the cell
• Primarily composed of proteins + lipids. Lipids help give membranes flexibility and
proteins monitor and maintain the cell's chemical climate and assist in the transfer of
molecules across the membrane.
Mitochondria • Produces energy in ATP form by oxidative phosphorylation
• Helps cell maintain proper concentration of calcium ions
• Help build certain parts of blood and hormones
Ribosomes • Assemble amino acids to form specific protein
• Process of production of proteins, the deoxyribonucleic acid produces mRNA by the
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process of DNA transcription
• Genetic message from the mRNA is translated into proteins during DNA translation
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • External surface studded with ribosomes, these
ribosomes manufacture all secreted proteins - integral proteins and phospholipids
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • Enzymes that catalyze reactions (integral proteins
forming the membrane)
Golgi Apparatus • Modify, package, and concentrate proteins/lipids before exiting the
• Create lysosomes
Lysosomes • Contain digestive enzymes (break down non useful tissue/bone, perform
metabolic actions, digest particles)
Peroxisomes • Carry out oxidation reactions leading to the production of hydrogen
Microtubules • Help support and give shape to the cell
• Transportation function, as they are the routes upon which organelles move through the
• Primary cell division function is to connect to chromosomes, help them complete their
first split, and then move the new chromosomes to their places in the new daughter cells
Microfilaments • Thinnest element of cytoskeleton, semi-flexible strands of protein
Allow cell motility, including phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages
Intermediate Filaments • Provide strength and support for the fragile tubulin structures
(part of cytoskeleton)
Centriole • Help form the spindle fibers that separate the chromosomes during cell
division (mitosis)
Cilia • Move cells from one place to another or assist in transporting external substances.
Flagella • Move liquid past the surface of the cell.
Microvilli • Fine hairlike projections on membrane which increase surface area of cell
and are useful for absorption and secretion functions. Ex. small intestine
Nucleus • Controls the heredity characteristics of an organism
• Responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation
• Aids in exchange of DNA and RNA between nucleus and the rest of the cell
Nuclear Membrane • Keeps DNA inside nucleus to protect it from surrounding
substances in the cytoplasm
• Regulates what materials enter or exit the nucleus
Nucleoli • Produce and assemble subunits which form the ribosome
Chromatin • Efficiently package DNA into small volume to fit into the nucleus of cell
and protect DNA structure and sequence
• Packaging DNA into chromatin allows for mitosis and meiosis, prevents chromosome
breakage and controls gene expression and DNA replication
Different Tissues of the Human Body
Histology: study of tissues & their cellular organization that provide an understanding for
the structural basis of organ physiology
• Individual body cells specialized to preform specific function that helps maintain
homeostasis; division of labour
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