ANP 1105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Erythropoietin, Reticulocyte, Polycythemia Vera

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ANP1105 – Lecture 10
Blood
Functions
1- Distribution
a. O2 and nutrients
b. Transportation of metabolic wastes
c. Transport hormones from endocrine organs to target organs
2- Regulation
a. Body temp.
i. Distribution, conservation, dissipation
b. pH in body tissues
i. Plasma proteins, bicarbonate reserve - act as buffers
c. Adequate fluid volume
i. Blood proteins prevent excessive fluid loss from blood stream
3- Protection
a. Platelets, plasma proteins, blood clotting
b. Antibodies, complement, WBCs
i. Prevent infection
ii. Foreign invader
Components
- Only fluid tissue in body
- Formed elements suspended in plasma
○ Erythrocytes (RBCs)
○ Leucocytes (WBCs)
○ Platelets
Physical characteristics
- Colour is scarlet (O2 rich) to dark red (O2 poor)
- More dense viscous than water
- pH = 7.35-7.45
- Temp = 38'C
- 8% body weight
○ Male = 5.6 L Female = 4.5 L
Plasma
- Straw coloured; 90% water and many solutes
- Plasma proteins
○ Produced in liver (except gamma globulins); functional proteins which remain in blood
Constituent Importance
Water 90% plasma volume; dissolving and suspending medium
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for solutes of blood; absorbs heat
solutes
Electrolytes - Most abundant solutes by number
- Cations include Na, K, Ca, Mg
- Anions include CHL, PSO4, SO4, HCO3
- Help maintain plasma osmotic pressure and pH levels
Plasma proteins - 8% by weight
- Contribute to osmotic pressure and maintain water balance
In blood and tissues
1. Albumin - 60% of plasma proteins
- Produced by liver
- Main contributor to osmotic pressure
2. globulins - 36% plasma proteins
Alpha, beta - Produced by liver
- Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, fat-soluble vitamins
Gamma - Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response
3. Firbrinogen - 4% of plasma proteins, produced by liver
- Forms fibrin threads of blood clot
- Albumin
○ 60% of all plasma proteins
○ Carrier of various molecules, impt blood buffer; major osmotic protein
○ Blood constantly adjusted to keep its composition, pH within normal range
○ What is major osmotic ion?
- Erythrocytes (RBCs)
○ Structural
○ 7.5 um in diameter
○ Flattened discs - depressed centre - biconcave discs
○ Anucleate (no nucleus) - bags of hemoglobin
○ Transports O2 from lungs to tissues
§ Transports 20% of CO2 back to lungs
○ 97% hemoglobin (heme = red pigment, globin = protein)
○ Very efficient for O2 transportation
§ No mitochondria - don’t consume any O2 carried
§ Generate ATP anaerobic mechanisms
○ Major factor contributing to blood viscosity
○ Women have lower RBC count
§ W = 4.3-5.2 X 10^6 cells / ul
§ M = 5.1-5.8 X 10^6 cells/ ul
○ Rate of blood flow inversely affected by RBC count
○ Functions
○ Completely dedicated to job of transporting resp. gases
○ Normal values of hemoglobin
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