Some scientists, recognizing the close relationship of humans, chimps, bonobos, and gorillas, use the term hominid to refer to all african hominoids. They then divide the hominid family into two subfamilies: the paninae (chimps, bonobos, and gorillas) and the. Although tool making involves intentional modification of the material of which it is made, tool use may involve objects either modified for some particular purpose or completely unmodified. Homo: homo- genus of bipeds that appeared 2. 5 million years ago, characterized by increased brain size compared to earlier bipeds. Levalloisian technique- toolmaking technique by which three or four long triangular flakes are detached from a specially prepared core; developed by members of the genus. Homo transitional from h. erectus to h. sapiens: neandertals- distinct group within the genus homo inhabiting europe and southwestern. Europe, southwest asia, and north africa from 40,000-125,000 years ago. Chapter 9- the neolithic revolution: the domestication of plants and.