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Lecture

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Hot Spring, Proterozoic


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman

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BIO1130- Proterozoic Eon keywords
Keyword Definition
9+2 organization
Alternation of
generations
1. Life cycle involving alternation of mulitcellular haploid
stage (gametophyte) with mulitcellular diploid stage
(sporophyte).
2. Occurs in most plants and some protists. Ex. Brown algae-
In this life cycle, a diploid structure like a sporophyte will
undergo meiosis to create spores, these spores undergo
mitosis to reproduce, and then they specialize and form
gametophytes that make egg and sperm, which fertilize to
become diploid
Ameboid
(Amoeboid)
movement
1. A crawling-like type of movement where the cell produces
bulges (pseudopodia) that stick to the substrate and pull the
cell forward.
2. Only for protists that do not have cells walls
3. The stiff outer core (ectoplasm) wraps around the end of
amoeba and squeezes it forward
Antibody 1. A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a
specific antigen
2. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the
body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and
foreign substances in the blood
3. Vaccines trigger the antibody production
Antigen 1. A toxin or other foreign substance (often protein) that
stimulates a specific immune response in the body, esp. the
production of antibodies which try to attach to antigens to
form aggregates
2. It stimulates an immune response in the body either alone or
after forming a complex with a larger molecule (as a
protein)
3. Are usually proteins found on the surface of viruses
4. It is capable of binding with a product (as an antibody or T
cell) of the immune response.*
Asexual
reproduction
1. Reproduction without the fusion of male and female
gametes
2. Genetically identical offspring are produced from a single
parent and inherit the genes of that parent only; occurs by
many mechanisms, including fission, budding and
fragmentation
3. Disadvantage- leads to a lack of genetic variation (this
usually occurs when environment is favourable)
4. It is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled
organisms such as the archaea, bacteria and protists. Many
plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well

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Bacteria 1. Microscopic, single-celled organisms, spherical, spiral, or
rod-shaped and appearing singly or in chains, comprising
the Schizomycota (a phylum of the kingdom Monera)
2. Their DNA (usually circular) can be found throughout the
cytoplasm rather than within a membrane-bound nucleus.
3. They reproduce by fission or by forming spores.
4. They can practically live everywhere. They can inhabit all
kinds of environment, such as in soil, acidic hot springs,
radioactive waste, seawater, deep in the Earth’s crust, in
stratosphere, and even in the bodies of other organisms.
5. various species of bacteria are involved in fermentation,
infectious diseases, putrefaction (rotting) or nitrogen
fixation
Bacteriophage 1. a virus that is parasitic (reproduces itself) in bacteria
2. Is any one of a number of viruses that infect specific
bacteria, usually causing their disintegration or dissolution
They do this by injecting genetic material, which that carry
enclosed in an outer protein capsid
3. Are among the most common biological entities on Earth
Bovine spongiform
encephalopathy
Capsid protein 1. Protein shell enclosing viral genome
2. In un-enveloped viruses, they only have capsid
3. Enveloped viruses have a membrane over the capsid
4. During the third stage of viral phases inside the cell, the
virus forces the cells to produce capsid proteins for the virus
Chloroplast 1. A plastid (organelle bounded by double membrane) that
contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes
place
2. They are only found in plant cells and some protists
(photosynthetic)
3. The original of the chloroplast is thought to come from
endosymbiosis, where a eukaryote ingested a photosynthetic
bacterium. Evidence- chloroplasts have circular DNA and
double membrane, and peptidoglycan membrane. In certain
linkages of photosynthetic protists, the chloroplast has four
membrane (due to secondary endosymbiosis)
Cilia 1. A short, microscopic, hair-like vibrating structure
surrounding some protists/eukaryotic cells containing a core
of microtubules, used to move cell or to moce fluid or
particles around cell
2. They are coordinated so that some have power stroke, others
have recovery stroke
3. Provides locomotion in free-swimming unicellular
organisms
4. Occurs in large numbers on the surface of certain cells,
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