BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Bitter Orange, Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning

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Chapter 1: The Scientific Method
Definition of Science
Science: A coherent body of knowledge related to certain categories of facts, objects, or phenomena
obeying laws that are verifiable through experimental methods.
Cannot verify=not science
An approach to understand natural world
Inquiry: a search for information and explanations of natural phenomena (process used in science)
o aims to acquire new knowledge:
Two approaches:
o Description based (ex. Describing nature, need observations for helping us to
understand science)
o Hypothesis based (ex. Explaining nature)
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning:
1.2.1 Inductive Reasoning (linked to a descriptive based approach):
Making a generalization often based on one or numerous specific observations
From particular (fact) to general (explanation)
Probability that inductive reasoning can be wrong (particular to general has probability of being
false as it does’t address ature of geeralizatio
1.2.2 Deductive Reasoning (linked to a hypothesis-based approach)
Involves stating a hypothesis and drawing conclusions (after experimentation or observation)
From general to particular
1.2.3 Inductive Reasoning
Example:
Observation: Orange is sweet
Generalization (and hypothesis): All oranges
are sweet
Prediction: If I taste all kinds of oranges, then
they will be sweet
Tests: Tasting all kinds of oranges
Travel to Madagascar: tasted sour orange
(hypothesis falsified)
All scientific inquiry starts with one or multiple observations
Subsequently : scientific process must be implemented
o Example: TV Dead Fisheslikely due to pollution or lack of oxygen (generalization made
from observation)- need to test water for pollution or lack of oxygen to prove (use
deductive reasoning to arrive at scientific truth)E.g. Lagoon in Florida
All processes start with observation leading to a generalization=leads to testing and verifying
Observations:
Observation: gathering of information, either through direct use of senses or with help of tools (e.g.
microscopes)detailed observations help with understanding (ex. Cell structure)
Data: recorded observations; items of information on which scientific inquiry is based
o Quantitative or qualitativeexpressed as numerical measurements
o Cell theory (made form cells) from inductive reasoning by observing for centuries
Observations
_Generalization_
Inductive reasoning
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Document Summary

Science: a coherent body of knowledge related to certain categories of facts, objects, or phenomena obeying laws that are verifiable through experimental methods: cannot verify=not science, an approach to understand natural world. Inquiry: a search for information and explanations of natural phenomena (process used in science: aims to acquire new knowledge, two approaches, description based (ex. Describing nature, need observations for helping us to understand science: hypothesis based (ex. 1. 2. 2 deductive reasoning (linked to a hypothesis-based approach) Involves stating a hypothesis and drawing conclusions (after experimentation or observation: from general to particular. Lagoon in florida: all processes start with observation leading to a generalization=leads to testing and verifying. Observations: observation: gathering of information, either through direct use of senses or with help of tools (e. g. microscopes) detailed observations help with understanding (ex. Sun always rises to the east? (we question observations)leads to hypothesis: hypothesis can be or not falsified, we can never say that a hypothesis is the scientific truth.

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