BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Microfilament, Vaucheria Litorea, Cell Wall

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Endomembrane is what allows the cell to form compartments.
Nucleus
Where all the DNA is stored
Has pores in its membrane so that nutrients can pass through
A double membrane with nuclear lamina
Cylindrical proteins (are the pores) open to let mRNA out, can only open with energy
Contains the nucleolus responsible for assembling ribosomes, an area rich in rRNA
(ribosomal RNA)
Ribosomes
Translation occurs in ribosomes attached to the membrane
Made up of large and small subunits
Endoplasmic Reticulums
Why have 2?
Rough ER has ribosomes studded along its surface, smooth ER does not
- This means you can produce a lot of protein at the same time.
Smooth ER creates lipids, detoxifies the cell (awesome at detoxifying alcohol)
Golgi Complex
Post-translational modification of proteins occurs here
I.e.: adding functional groups (sugars, lipids, sulphur)
This is going to affect how it travels inside or outside the cell, how it interacts with other
proteins
Looks like stacks of membrane folds, like flattened pancakes
Makes sure that the proteins are addressed properly
Lysosomes
Filled with enzymes, very acidic
Will degrade things within the cell
Can digest components from outside the cell
Mitochondria
It’s like a cell within a cell
Double membrane
They have their own DNA, very similar to that of bacteria
Inherited
Reproduces through binary fission
Cells are able to change the number of mitochondria that they have, according t their
energy requirements
Chloroplasts
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