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Lecture 14

BIO2135 Lecture 14: Lecture 14 - Arthropods and echinoderms

Course Code
BIO 2135
Jon Houseman

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Direct and indirect flight
Thorax for locomotion
Not cuticular box, has cuticular plates
Has fleshy membranes
Articulating membrane between plates
Allows for expansion of abdomen
Feeding and reproduction
Waterproof case of sperm placed inside female track
Females produce eggs
Modular system of ovarioles
Assembly line of eggs, once one gets put, then next is ready
50 ovarioles in 1 ovary and 50 in the other, half and half
In ovarioles, lowest is most mature, then next most etc.
As eggs pass in front, sperm is released
Can be stored for a long time
Keeps all the sperm and then makes all dem babies
Eg female only mates with each male once, tries to mate with as many as she can
Sticks eggs onto accessory gland
Receive sperm from male and it is stored in spermatheca
Female system
Different maturation levels
Testis consists of REPEATING elements
Sperm goes through sperm duct, stored in semival vesicles
Packaging in accessory gland
Waterproof shell before fertilized, needs a hole
Male system
Fast reproduction
Need to get as much water as possible
Uses potassium pump
This is their excretory system
Cl- passively moves in to neutralize
Water has uric acid inside
Osmotic effect to pull in water
Pumps K into the lumen of tube, potassium is positively charged
At junction of midgut and hindgut
Need to scavenge water from food
Need to recover minerals used in this system
Opposite happens, K+ goes out, Cl- goes out, H2O goes out
Permeable to small things but not big
Lined with line layer of epicuticle
Uric acid cannot get through
Even one that opens up it's butthole and water goes through their highly concentrated
At rectum
Malpighian tubules
Lecture 14 - Arthropods and echinoderms
March 7, 2017
2:25 PM
Animal Form and Function Page 1

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Even one that opens up it's butthole and water goes through their highly concentrated
This helps with the water stuff
Set of branches that go through body
Main trunks and lateral connective
Filled with air
Open system to receive air = gas exchange
One cell of mitochondria and one with the other
At one end there is the spiracle
Tracheal trunk goes up and down all the animal
Spiracle closed at all times
Gases diffuses through air faster than liquids
Spiracle opens when the percentage of oxygen at the right drops down
Flushes system with lots of oxygen
Unlimited flight capacity
Constant flow of oxygen = no lactate cycle
Try to lose as little water as possible
Tracheal system
Larval stage looks just like adult but without wings
Same feeding during larval and adult
Wings and ovaries etc already starting to grow on not adults
Incomplete / hemimetabolous
Animal Form and Function Page 2

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Larval stage feeds on different stuff than adult
After chrysalis, comepletely different
When enough, put It together
Larval is finding food the entire time
Complete / holometabolous
Only queen has reproductive potatial
Queen sens chemical through all colongy, makes them all sterile, if hive too large, not all
females sterile, makes some male babais
Worker bees all female, male called the drones
Waggle dance
Chemically dedicated to her
In old hives, many potential queens so chaos
Old queen will take workers that are still bonded to her and leaves to make a new colony
Watch podcast
Sun sets of
Waggle speed = distance
Communicate to other bees where the sugar
Know the speed of waggle
Ciliwfrd r
Blastopore turns into butthole
Also in the Bryozoa
Three mickey mouse ears coming off
Protocoel, mesocoel, metacoel
Molecularly realize that Bryozoa have tripartite coelom but they evolved
Tripartite coelom
Mouth in centre and ring with cilia that sweep food across tissue towards
Dipleurula larval stage
Deuterostomes contain echinoderm, hemichordates and chordates
Phylum Echinoderm
Animal Form and Function Page 3
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