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BIO1130 - Proterozoic1.docx

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ProterozoicProtistMembrane bound nucleus have microtubules and microfilaments etc that is why they are eukaryoticUnicellular and microscopic some are large and multicellularAlmost all are aquatic collection of about 200 000Kingdom of Protista or Protoctista Distinct Characteristics of Eukaryotic CellsEndomembrane SystemoMembranous sacs that divide the cell into different organellesoScientists hypothesize that the cell membranes may have extended inwards and surrounded the DNA to create the nucleus and other remaining membranes gave rise to ER and Golginuclear envelope the ER golgi complexThe infolding plasma membrane responsible for evolutionNuclear Envelope NucleusoControls movement of proteins and RNA molecules into and out of nucleus EndosymbiosisoStates that prokaryotic ancestor of mitochondria and chloroplasts were engulfed by larger prokaryotes and formed a mutual symbiotic relationshipover time became inseparable parts of the cello The rise in atmospheric O is a major factor in occurrence of endosymbiosis because 2mitochondria carry out aerobic respirationoMitochondria evolved first then chloroplast Cells with both mitochondria and chloroplast are developed into the plants and algae of today Chloroplast developed in cyanobacteria becausephotosyntheticoEvidence suggesting endosymbiont theory is correct mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendents from prokaryotic cellsMorphology mitochondria represent aerobic prokaryotes chloroplasts resemble cyanobacteriaReproduction both mitochondria and chloroplast divide by binary fission how prokary divideGenetic Information Contains own genetic DNA and codes for organelles functionTranscription and Translation Contain complete transcription and translational machinery also contain ribosomes that are familiarly found in prokaryotes not eukaryotesElectron Transport Can both generate ATP through their own electron transport chains ETCSecondary Endosmybiosis ChloroplastoPrimary aboveEukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic cyanobacterium did not digest it rather used itChloroplasts with 2 membranes all land plantsoSecondaryThree separate events in which red and green algae were involvedRed algaePhotosynthetic red algae was engulfed chlorplast or plastid had 4 membranes around itBecame the chloroplasts of heterokonts and dinoflagellates apicomplexans had plastidremnantfamily of plant organelles Green AlgaePhotosynthetic green algae were engulfed which led to the formation of chlorarachniophtyes and euglenoids FlagellumoEukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella are structurally different even though same functionmovement
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