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BIO2135 (167)
Jon Houseman (156)


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Jon Houseman

PoriferaJanuary16121016 PM PORIFERACladistics Useful CharacteristicsCladogram Representation of evolutionary sequence Arrived at by doing cladisticsCladistics solution to a problem in trying to determine evolutionary sequences takes away bias in what characters you should useHenning creator of cladistics wanted to be sure that when talking about phylogeny that their not using derived primitive ancient advanced in a different way that people used them before bias on whats advanced or notSlide 2Apomorphies derived characters new traitsPlesiomorphies primitive traitsSynapomorphies shared trait everyone hasAutapomorphies defined synapomorphies can define you or your shared taxonEx Molluscs have raduala shared derived trait because it defines the group its a autapomorphy Slide 3Arthropoda ExampleAs you go up the tree autapomorphies become synplesiomorphies Cladogram ConstructionSlide 410More ones you have the more derived you areOutgroup holds all primitive characters Parismony The Camera EyeParsimony create the simplest cladogramCamera eye image goes into lense and gets reflected on the back of the eye where photo pigments areSlide 112 ways to explain camera eye1 camera eye is too cmoplex couldnt have evolved multiple timesResult have it appear but disappear in many other animals means 1 event for its occurance and 6 ways to explain camera eye for why it did or didnt appearSlide 122 camera eye evolved twice independently in animals easier in molluscs and vertabratesResult explain 2 eventsUniversal event pigments used to detect light are universal in all animals that detect light Anatomy of a CladogramSlide 13
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