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Chapter_2.doc

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO4120
Professor
Najwa Haddad
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: The Pattern of Evolution Pg. 37-49 Theory of Special Creation has two components: First component: • Species do not change through time • They were created independently of one another • They were created recently Second component: • Identifies the process that is responsible for producing the pattern: separate and independent acts of creation by a designer Special Creation (Theory of Special Descent with Modification (Theory of Creation): Evolution): -Species do not change -Species change over time -Each species separately created -Species derive from common ancestors -Earth and life are young -Earth and life are old 2.1- Evidence of Change through Time Microevolution- small scale change Macroevolution- dramatic change in bodies of living organisms Direct Observation of Change through Time: • Soapberry bugs feed by using their long beaks to attack the inflated, balloon like fruit capsules of their host plants. The bugs probe the seams between the capsule’s panels, trying to reach the seeds, which are held in the center of the capsule far away from the walls. When a bug manages to reach a seed, it pierces the seed coat, liquefies its contents, then sucks them up. • Read bottom of Pg. 40, and Pg. 41 for clean explanation of change substantially over time. Vestigial Organs: Vestigial Structure- is a useless or rudimentary version of a body part that has an important function in other, closely allied, species • Humans too have vestigial structures; ex. A tiny tailbone called the coccyx (Pg. 42, Fig 2.5a) • Vestigial traits also occur at the molecular level Evidence from the Fossil Record: Fossil- is a trace of any organism that lived in the past Fossil Record- total, worldwide collection of fossils, scattered among thousands of different institutions and individuals Law of Succession: • Fossil and living organisms in the same geographic region are related to each other and are distinctly different form organisms found in other areas Law of Succession- general pattern of correspondence between fossil and living forms from the same locale • Today’s species are descended with modification from ancestors that lived in the same region; it is to be expected that they would bear a stronger resemblance to their recent ancestors than to their more distantly related kin in other parts of the world • The resemblance between living and fossil forms in the same region suggests that living organisms are descended with modficiation from earlier species. Transitional Forms: • Species are descended with modification from earlier forms and that fossils represent past populations, some of which were ancestors of creatures alive today • If this was right, then the fossil record should capture evidence of transformations in progress: transitional species showing a mix of features, including traits typical of ancestral populations and novel traits seen later in descendants Pg. 53-65 Ring Species: • First kind of evidence one might seek for common ancestry is documentation that one species can split into two • Some species appear to be in the process of splitting into two. Freely interbreeding populations connect the entire species, but members of certain populations do not interbreed. • Greenish warbers show that with space and time one species can gradually divide into two o Pg. 53; Fig 2.17 Homology: • Is the study of likeness; the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function • Organisms show curious similarities in structure and development unrelated to function. These similarities are difficult to explain under the Theory of Special Creation, but easy to explain under the Theory of Evolution • With a few exceptions,
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