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Lecture 1

CHM 2311 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cladogenesis, Allopatric Speciation, Anagenesis

Course Code
CHM 2311
Natalie Goto

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Modern Theory of evolution Part 2 Keywords
Speciation *How species arise : two different ways:
Cladogenesis and Anagenesis
Anagenesis -An organisms that gradually over time is
replaced by a different one
-Disappeared over time, there is no
increase in species but change of species
Cladogenesis -Splitting where it becomes new or
additional ones to create them.
-When we have lineage that has in its
population two distinct morphologies one
may evolve where it becomes a new
Henning -Came up with the Cladistic terms
Cladistics -Using shared derived characters to infer
the phylogenetic relationships and
evolutionary history of groups of
Apomorphies -Derived trait within the group, specialized
trait unique to group
Plesiomorphies -Primitive , present in both outgroups and
Synamorphies -When a group shares a derived characters
-Change everyone inherits
Symplesiomorphies -Traits you shared with ancestors in past
-Ancient characteristics
Clade Monophyletic lineage, unique set of
derived characters.
Cladogram -A branching diagram where the end points
of the branches represent different species
of organisms.
-Illustrates phylogenetic relationships
Monophyletic -Every cladist wants to produce this
-Have all descendants and ancestors
-Know various synamorphies and
apomorphies that link them together
-Simple branching
Paraphyletic -The pattern changes and shows you
missed something
Ex:Birds were thought to be own group but
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