CLA1102A Tuesday Jan 7 2014h
Alphabet comes from the latin alphabet
Latin on coins, exits, many crests
60% of English comes from latin also French
latin has evolved into many different languages, it is not dead
books were a roman idea, satires, science fictions, fantasy
Christianity, new testament
Roman catholic church, political structure entirely
Laws all based off roman laws, all have evolved
Calendar is roman
Consoles (mayors) had years named after them
How years begin
Time: hour is roman
Imperial system was roman
Their, art, architecture, literature
Acceptance of slavery, crucifixion, gladiators
Myths of rome’s foundation
A wedding party for pelues and thetis who had Achilles
All the gods except eris/Discordia was not invited because she caused problems
She was pissed off, so she caused trouble anyways. She tooks her golden apple and she
engraved on it for the most beautiful and she threw it into the party
All the goddesses wanted it and fought for it. It came down to hera/juno Minerva/athena
and Aphrodite/venus. They went to Jupiter to ask who would get the apple. He said he
would let a mortal decide. The mortal (paris) a Trojan from ida is a prince. Paris gives the
apple to venus. Each goddess tries to bribe him, hera says he will be the king of Europe and aisa, Minerva offers him the wisdom of the world and skill in war, venus offers him
Helen of Sparta; the king of meneleus.
He choses Helen of Sparta. Meneleus gathers all of the greek people to attack the Trojans
with 1100 ships. The 10 year siege of troy, they cant take it so they trick the Trojans and
set up the Trojan horse. The greeks come out and slaughter the Trojans and take back
Helen. One of the Trojan generals Aneas settles near the tiber river and founds a city
named after his wife lavinium. He has a son named Ascanius. Ascanius at 18 wants to be
the king of his own city. He names the city Alba Longa. There are 14 kings, king 13 and
14 are twins named numitor, and amulius; one of them is evil. Numitor is the good twin.
Numitor starts off being king and has a daughter and some sons. The daughters name is
Rhea silvias. Amulius takes over and kills his sons. Rhea silvia is forced to become a
vestal virgin. Their virginity is dedicated to the god vesta. The punishment for having sex
is being buried alive.
After this, Rhea siliva gets pregnant. She has two sons named Romulus and remus;
grandsons of numitor. Amulius calls in a huntsman and tells him to drown the babies. He
puts them in a basket hoping theyd be washed out to sea. The basket starts to go down but
gets caught on the bank and they are discovered by a she wolf and suckles them. While
she does this a shepard named Faustulus takes the two and raises them as his own. They
realize they are the grandsons of numitor. They raise an army and go to alba longa and
throw out amulius and is killed. Numitor is reinstated. Now the grandsons want their own
city. They go to where the wolf found them and start a city. The palatine and Aventine
hilltops. Both want different hilltops. They ask the gods and look for birds as signs.
Romulus says he saw 6 vultures. Remus comes down and says he saw 12 but Romulus saw his birds sooner. Romulus wants palentine. They each build a city on their respective
hills. He can only stop Romulus in a religious way with the pomerium. Remus jumps the
wall and says he’s destroyed the city. Romulus kills remus. Romulus names his city
White oxen ritual to create the pomerium to protect the city
April 21 753BCE > founding of rome
Southeast side of the tiber
In a cluster of many hills
7 hills of rome palatine, Aventine, Capitoline, quirnal, viminal, Esquiline, Caelian
made a shallow valley and there is a shallow river. This valley leads to an island in the
middle of the tiber.. 1200bc 1000bc this area was populated and it was called latium and
they speak latin. Therefore rome is a latin city. It is on a hill because high ground is easier
to defend. But much of their area is volcanic making good crops, and they have lots of
The tiber offered excellent transport to the sea and inland. The tiber island takes all the
runoff from the tiber and it is the first place to cross. Anyone from north or south they
have to cross at the island. This is a natural trade route.
The etruscans are from the north. The south harbors many greek colonies. There are all
sorts of natural resources in the area. Stone, metals, timber. On the coast there is salt,
which is essential to life and it made their food better. Salt was also used to preserve
foods. Rome is thavily influenced by the etruscans. There are 36 major greek cities in
south in the 8 century. The latin people, the etruscans, and the greek influenced rome.
They started moving into the formerly swampy valley.
As greeks start moving in, rome is getting bigger.
Regal period 753509
Rome was a complete mess with hasty and disorganized buildings. During the empire
750’0001 millions people pop.
Rome as a city was really quite small. 300 per acre, 730 per hectare in rome. In the
western world there is not a city like rome until London in 1800.
Rome was noisy, smelly, disgusting, and dangerous. Urban alienation, sat at home and
didn’t go outside. Forum markets for all different purchases. They had aqueducts and
made obelisks. They had 2 theaters, two spiral columns. 2 amphitheatres, 4 gladiator
training schools, basins for naval battles, 420 streets, 45’000 appartments, 300 public
store houses, houses of nobles etc.
Insuli is the latin word for apartment building. Damousse is house in latin. Water supply, baths houses for thousands. 955 bath buildings. 1214 fountains.
Outdoor air conditioning, other uses are for people to get water; these fountains are
Smaller. 144 public toilets.
A family’s typical day;
Guyus Julius freedman of asstiana his wife cassia Minerva who wore jewlery, had two
sons and a daughter. He taught children and acted as tutor/ nanny. The two freed slaves
get married. She has lost many babies, they are not roman but their children are roman.
He works as a teacher in a small school.
His wife is a midwife. Obstetrix is latin for midwife.
Class structure in rome
Free citizens were divided in 2 classes: patricians and plebeians (plebs)
The patrician are the rich, the 1% the plebs are the other 99% These classes were
hereditary. The name will be plebeian or patrician. It has no bearing on what your status
is as a citizen. These old fashion terms became pointless replaced by a political and
military definition. Equites is a business class who are self made and joined cavalry to
show off their wealth. The only way to get money was to get land. Senators were people
who would do more of the political career. Sesterces is a unit of roman money.
Quaestor, is someone who has fulfilled one year political power.
Lecture 3: Tuesday January 10, 2014
Continuing the regal period:
750725 the first wall was built
In 200 years, rome expanded down into the valley and by 550 it has become a large and
They made a sewage system, a meeting centre, a marketplace. This has unified religious
practices, greek, Etruscan, and Italian.
Their acces to the river, they can have trade with north Africa. They have started to
expand their military.
Romulus was the only king to have 1 name. Many of the modern ones had 2 names
Titus Tatius doesn’t really count as a king, he would be the 8 king along with Romulus.
Romulus was latin, but Titus Tatius was from the sabine
Rome was set up as an asylum so people could escape the law. This attracted many male
They get the idea to have a giant festival and they invite the sabine with their families. At
this festival they steal the women and kick out the men. This is known as the sabine rape.
There is nother they can do because of romes wall.
All these women fall in love with their kidnappers. The women stop the battle with their
children. Romulus invited titus tatius to be king with him. The romans and the sabines
Numa pompilius was a sabine and was king after Romulus. Religious reformer, brings new calendar with junary and febuary.
Tullus hostilius 3 won many battles latin
Ancus marcius 4 sabineth
Tarquinius priscus 5 was an Etruscan
Servus Tullius 6 was a latin
Tarquinius superbus (the proud) 7 there will obviously be trouble
Becomes evil and alienated
Has a son sextus tarquinius fall in love with lucretia who is married, but sextus rapes her
and she kills herself
This drives the kings out. The romans decided that all kings are bad so they create a new
government. Rome is apporx. 285 hectares, and controls 282 sq kilometres
CLA1102 January 21 2014 t
The latins were scared they would be taken over by the romans so they attacked the
Rome and the latin league decided they should be allies so they came to an agreement to
fight outside threats
The treaty entailed :
1. eternal peace,
2. Military cooperation efforts against outside threats both help each other army must be
half and half was important because of the loot and plundering
3. The loot and plunder is shared among the 2 parties
4. gives legal force to all peoples (rights and so on) conuibium (right of inter marriage),
commercium (free trade), migratio (the right to become a citizen in another city, adult