Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UOttawa (30,000)
CMN (2,000)
Lecture 3

CMN4105 Lecture 3: Tab 2 (CCH Canadian Case)


Department
Communication
Course Code
CMN 4105
Professor
Mark Lowes
Lecture
3

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Fixed&in&a&material&form
Copyright&protects&the&expression&of&ideas
Copyright&is&a&creature&of&status.
Copyright&law&does&not&protect&ideas&it&protects&their&expression.
Original
1.
Fixed&in&a&medium&
2.
What&are&2&statutory&requires&for&a&work&to&enjoy&protection&under&copyright:
How&can&you&infringe&the&copyright&act:&by&making&a&copy.&Which&then&follows&
authorization&
More&generally&when&we&talk&about&dealings&we&talk&about&how&people&deal&in&
copyrighted&works.&You&can&deal&legally&by&reproducing&an&image&cause&you&have&a&
license&to&do&so.&
The&nature&of&dealing,&the&way&you&deal&is&one&way&in&which&you&can&infringe&
copyrights.
Ethics&is&a&system&of&regulations&and&provide&framework&within&which&individuals&can&
enact&their&morals
Ethics&in&a&sense&can&be&looked&at&as&being&embodied,&as&an&act.&
Onus&Jburden,&if&something&is&a&burden&you.&You&have&to&do&it.
You&are&innocent&until&proven&guilty,&onus&is&on&the&crown&to&prove&your&guilt,&not&on&
the&accuse&to&prove&your&innocence.&
Although&a&reverse&onus&clause&in&and&itself&is&unconstitutional,&the&govt.&can&when&
they&are&taken&to&court,&but&it&is&a&reasonable&and&demonstrably&justifiable&
infringement&of&charter&right&freedom.&
To&achieve&policy&objectives&(narcotics&control).&
Its&one&thing&to&be&convicted&of&mere&possession&of&narcotics,&it’s&a&whole&other&thing&
to&be&convicted&of&trafficking.&
When&you&take&policy&objectives&and&embody&them&in&legislation&you&can&draw&on&
them&in&public&policy&and&ethics&in&legislation.&Statute&constitutes&ethical&structure.&
That&ethical&framework&for&governing&is&embodied&in&legislation.&
The&fair&dealings&provision&section&29.&of&copyright&acts&also&embody&users&rights.&
The&copyright&act&was&amended&by&virtue&of&another&piece&of&legislation.&
Copyright&modernization&act&that&produced&the&amendments&in&this&bill.&
Policy&argument:&one&of&the&huge&arguments&amongst&several&was&to&do&with&users&
rights&as&a&recognition&in&society.&Digital&network,&technology,&software.&Data&
manipulation.&
Ways&of&monetizing&and&privatizing&data.&
Info&not&necessarily&in&a&physical&form,&but&rather&IT&society&causes&challenges&with&
material&in&the&"form"&these&things&take&is&digital&in&nature.&
Law&is&statutory&embodiment&of&public&policy.
!
What&is&relationship&between&ethics,&law,&public&policy.
Having&laws&reflect&the&internet,&technological&changes.&Etc.&
!
After&15&years&to&have&parliament&amend&the&copyright&act.&And&have&legislation&
recognize&technology&changes.&
Cassette&tapes&are&screwing&copyright&owners&of&all&kinds&of&royalties.&
Canadian&copyright&holders&were&getting&screwed&at&millions&of&$&in&royalties.&
Users&rights&under&section&29&of&copyright&act&are&reflected&in&fair&dealings&of&copyright&
act.
Those&fair&dealings&provisions&embody&the&concept&of&users&rights&which&is&a&
recognition&of&realities& of&digital&tech&and&age,&to&produce&what&is&referred&to&as&user&
generated&content.&
users&rights&advocate,&open&policy&advocates&
!
User&generated&content&is&captured&for&the&first&time&in&section&29.21.&
It&is&therefore&public&policy&embodied&in&statutory&form.
Public&policy&debates&are&guided&by&ethics,&often&colliding&ethical&perspectives,&in&this&
case&users&rights.
Much&of&the&content&now&at&play&or&available&via&the&internet&/&WWW&in&particular&and&
social&media&platforms,&it&is&content&generated&by&users,&not&traditionally&by&corporate&
entities&e.g.&media&corporations,&newspaper&publishers&(Formally&constituted&entity).
Digital&practices,&their&infusion&in&cultural&practices&have&diffused&even&further&to&
everybody,&now&everyone&virtually&is&a&content&provider.&
Providing&users&ability&to&generate&content&for&non&commercial&use&thereby&allows&
such&users&to&infringe&copyrights&without&being&penalized.&
A&legal&safe&haven&for&creators&to&produce&works&for&nonJcommercial&purposes&which&
require&the&incorporation&in&some&way&of&copyrighted&works.&
29.2&is&known&as&the&Youtube&clause/provision.&Because&content&production&on&
youtube,&majority&is&user&generated&content.&E.g.&video&you&upload&on&Youtube&uses&
an&existing&track&but&this&is&infringing&copyright.&Using&copyrighted&work&without&
infringement.&If&the&user&generated&content&that&does&in&fact&infringe&copyright,&as&
long&as&it&meets&the&criteria& in&the&legislation& that&it&is&user&generated&content&that&is&
not&commercial&in&nature,&then&you&are&no&infringing&copyrights.&
User&generated&content&falls&under&the&user&generators&rights&provisions&of&the&
copyright&act.&Fair&dealings.&Escape,&safe&haven&for&the&user.&As&long&as&your&dealings&
are&fair&then&you&are&not&infringing&copyright.&
You&can&valorize&something&for&a&commercial&game/return&is&not&necessarily&
money.
!
But&there&are&other&modes&to&valorize&(imputing&of&value&into&something)
The&language&of&user&provisions&are&being&interpreted&and&unfolded&practice.&
Commercial&is&not&necessarily&monetary&value.&&
This&is&conceptual&problem&in&terms&of&setting&out,&defining,&conceptualizing&and&
ultimately&setting&out&the&scope&of&what&constitutes&users&rights&and&what&are&the&
limits&users&have&with&respect&to&the&use&of&copyrighted&works&incorporated&into&the&
production&of&content.
On&the&other&hand&what&is&the&scope&of&the&owners&rights,&the&owners&of&copyrights.&
There&is&a&distinction&of&owner&and&creator&of&copyrights.&
You&can&assign&the&economic&rights&by&assigning&the&copyright&in&a&work&through&a&
contractual&arrangement,&whereby&in&return&for&money&you&assign&your&copyright.
The&creator&in&that&e.g.&is&no&longer&a&copyright&holder,&they&still&have&their&moral&right&
but&not&economic&rights.&
!"#"$%&'
Distinction&b/w&owner's&right&and&copyright&holders&rights.
The&owner&may&not&necessarily&own&the&copyright&in&that&work.&
What&is&scope&of&such&rights.&Scope&of&users&rights?
Implicit&in&the&judgement&and&an&outcome&that&you&can&infer,&you&also&have&a&situation&
where&the&court&must&strike&a&balance&between&those&2&competing&interests.&
Owners&and&creators&of&copyright&and&the&users&of&copyright.&
Pushing&boundaries,&creation,&creating&new&things&
There&has&to&be&recognition&that&the&owners&of&copyrighted&works&such&as&the&gallery&
owners&in&Theberge.&There&rights&and&interests&have&to&be&respected&and&balanced&as&
well.&
Fair&dealing&provision.&Exception&in&the&sense&that&fair&dealings&allow&you&to&fairly&deal&
in&copyrighted&works&even&if&you're&infringing&the&copyright.&As&long&as&&you&meet&the&
requirements&of&the&test&for&determining&what&is&fair.&
In&law&we&talk&about&fair&dealing,&philosophically&what&is&fair?
Your&right&to&freedom&is&guaranteed&but&not&absolute.&
We&have&authorization&and&fair&dealing&as&matters&that&have&to&be&required&by&the&
court.&
There&are&multiple&things&that&supreme&court&of&Canada&has&to&interpret&scope&of&
owner's&rights&and&users&rights,&fair&dealings&section.
What&qualifies&for&copyright&protection:&originality&
Fixation&is&not&at&issue&here.&Its&presumed.&Fixation&in&other&words&is&not&an&issue&from&
interpretive&perspective.&They&are&not&concerned&with&fixation,&they&are&not&fixing&
There&are&11&judicial&decisions,&they&are&published&works&that&embody&the&decisions,&
they&are&already&fixed.&There&are&11&works&but&the&copyright&is&held&ostensivily&by&the&
publishers.
The&nature&of&the&works&in&very&imp&because&the&application&of&the&law&and&
interpretation&is&dependent&upon&the&facts&of&the&case.&The&facts&always&matter.&
Realizations&that&the&facts&matter,&the&application&and&interpretation&of&legislation&can&
only&take&place&in&set&of&facts&that&set&out&boundaries&for&interpretation.&
The&interpretation&of&the&meaning&of&authorization&infringement&can&only&take&place&
with&respect&to&the&facts&before&court.&What&we&have&here&then&are&works.
It’s&the&first&issue&to&be&dealt&with&
!
The&works&in&question&contain&very&specific&elements
!
We&take&that&a&step&further:&the&works&in&question&are&recorded&judicial&
decisions.&
!
Why&is&originality&at&issues?&
The&cases&here&are&all&public&domain,&they&are&all&Supreme&Court&of&Canada&
judgement.&
You&can&get&them&for&free.&But&what&happens&in&this&case&of&the&legal&publisher,&
reporting&judicial&decisions?&
They&are&all&taking&the&same&judgement&from&Supreme&court&Canada&in&a&case.&
The&argument&is&that&a&requirement&if&you&want&to&attract&copyright&for&the&publishers&
to&take&that&supreme&court&judgement,&they&have&to&do&something&to&make&it&original.&
We&find&it&in&the&copyright&act&section&5.&sub&1.&
Works&in&which&copyright&must&subsist&in&order&to&be&original&
If&work&isn't&original&it&cannot&be&copyrighted
Original
!
In&any&material&form&whatever
Now&that&we&are&in&digital&age,&its&becoming&more&difficult&to&
interpret&what&constitutes&material&in&the&traditional&legal&dictionary&
explanation&of&material.
!
Digital&info,&digital&files.
!
Underlying&data&that&could&be&reconstituted&
!
You&have&to&understand&how&technology&works
!
What&constitutes&material?
Fixed&in&a&medium&&
!
2&statutory&requirements&for&a&work&to&enjoy&copyright&requirements:
For&the&statutory&requirement&of&fixation&we&go&to&section&3&of&subsection&1.&
Copyright&shall&subsist&in&Canada.&
Understand&how&they&animate&more&generally&the&concept&of&originality.&
The&fundamental&question&that&is&there&it&has&to&be&determined.&Whether&or&not&it&
attaches&to.&
The&question&is&the&work&that&is&done&by&the&individual&publishing&companies&to&the&
reported&judgements.&
The&question&becomes&are&they&just&merely&copying&the&judgement&from&supreme&
court&of&canada&and&sticking&in&their&publication&and&charging&for&this?&
They&cannot&argue&that&copyright&has&been&infringed&if&infact&copyright&does&not&
subsist&in&those&11&works.&
In&every&case&you&cant&assert&copyright&has&been&infringed&that&work&in&question&is&in&
fact&original.&
Thats&why&its&a&big&deal&here&cause&the&facts&of&the&case&as&such…the&publishing&
companies&the&work&they&do&to&the&actual&judgement&is&it&enough&work&with&respect&
to&the&summaries,&indices,&is&that&"work"&attracting&copyright?&Is&it&enough&that&
staffers&of&CCH&Canadian&write&their&own&summaries&of&case?
Thats&why&originality&is&the&prime&issue&in&this&case.&The&supreme&court&of&Canada&
agreed&to&hear&this&appeal&among&other&reasons&the&very&ground&of&this&case.&
The&work&that&was&done&has&to&be&of&such&a&standard&that&it&infact&produces&original&
work.&Which&goes&to&the&question&of&is&that&work&satisfactory?&
In&other&words,&one&of&the&traditional&standards…is&the&sweat&of&the&brow&approach.&
A&work&had&to&be&produced&subject&to&a&certain&degree&
What&exactly&is&the&service&offer&by&the&law&society&is&very&specific&in&nature&with&
respect&to&how&technology&is&used&and&you&separate&the&issue&of&the&service&providing&
single&copy&providing&that&to&the&issue&of&technology.&Fax&equipped&photocopy&
machine.&
Whether&or&not&by&acknowledging&warning&people&about&copyright&infringement&and&
providing&means&for&engaging&infringement,&does&that&constitute&copyright&
infringement?&
Be&familiar&with&facts&in&publications&of&the&issue,&what&made&them&unique.
The&next&step&is&the&service:&what&is&the&specific&service&offered?
The&service&is&not&the&same&as&technology&offered&to&publish
These&basic&facts&are&very&imp&to&study&and&follow&the&case.&
At&law&that&is&know&as&the&
Reasons&for&decision,&reason&for&judgement
!
What&are&the&reasons&given
!
But&you&can&appreciate&and&understand&the&reasons&and&their&import&for&solving&
the&ethical&dilemmas
!
The&supreme&court&of&Canada&is&an&appeal&court.&Appeal&from&a&lower&court.
Federal,&provincial&court&of&appeal,&etc.
If&its&an&appeal&court&their&job&is&to&hear&the&appeals.&
Appeal&is&appeal&from&a&decision&of&a&lower&court.
In&this&instance&you&need&to&understand&what&party&is&the&appellant&(the&party&that&
brought&the&appeal),&responded&(the&responding&party).
The&appeal&should&be&allowed&means&the&appellant&wins.
This&case&is&a&bit&tricky&because&you&have&party&as&the&appellant&in&some&issues&but&the&
responded&in&other&issues&and&inversely&vice&versa.&
Therefore,&the&publishers&are&the&respondents&on&the&issues&that&the&law&society&is&
appealing.&
Cross&appeal&in&this&case.&
There&is&an&appeal&and&a&cross&appeal,&they&are&happening&at&the&same&time.&
E.g.&examination&and&cross&examination&of&a&witness.
They&are&separate&issues&from&the&issue&of&cross&appeal.
(#)*)+",)-.%'
/0-12#)3"-)2+$4'
5")#$67",)+*8$&'
Consent&(no&concerned&with&this)&4.
On&appeal&is&issue&of:
Para&13.&deals&with&originality,&authorization&and&fair&dealings.&
If&there&is&CMN&to&public&without&authorization&then&there&is&infringement&
!
Communication&to&the&public&1.
Issue&on&cross&appeal:
Para&4.&sets&out&the&issues&on&appeal.&
What&does&the&service&consist&of?&
There&is&only&single&copies&from&self&service& photocopiers.&
It’s&the&provision&and&the&maintenance&of&the&selfJservice&photocopiers&that&the&
publishers&are&saying&that&there&is&implied&authorization.&
The&law&society&may&not&be&implicitly& authorizing&but&it&is&reasonable&inference&that&
they&are&authorizing.&
More&and&more&of&our&tech&is&now&driven&by&smart&technology.
Authorization&Jliability&providing&service& to&their&clients&that&ISP&provide&the&
service&that&is&used&to&engage&in&wideJspread&copyright&infringement.&Put&this&in&
the&concept&of&ISP:&authorization&and&copyright.&
1.
Consider:&
The&liability& that&ISP&might&potentially&attractive&copyright&infringement&
E.g.&Smart&homes&are&a&logical&extension&of&smart&phones
!
Thinking&past&surface&level,&rather&consider&smart&phones&as&a&
manifestation&of&a&much&deeper&reality& of&internet&and&network&society.
!
Extension&of&the&logic&of&the&smart&phone&to&the&smart&home&&e.g.&
thermostat.&
!
The&internet&of&things&is&just&another&reality&to&consider&with&respect&to&
the&idea&of&authorization&
!
Ethical&problem&whereby&we&have&the&emergence&of&the&internet&of&things.&
Forward&thinking&of&e.g.&google&moving&into&a&different&product&category.&
2.
!"#"$9'
We&now&come&up&to&how&the&question&that&is&set&out&at&the&start&of&the&para&4&it&is&
unanswerable&in&front&of&the&courts.&
Section&1&of&charter&rights&and&freedoms…allows&us&the&challenge&govt.&legislation&
being&as&infringement&of&rights&of&freedom.&Is&it&reasonable?&That&question&is&not&
answerable&in&any&real&practical&court&situation.&
We&take&big&questions&and&break&them&down&into&component&parts&that&are&
manageable&and&answerable.
By&considered&whether&the&infringing&legislation&does&it&impair&the&right&of&freedom&of&
question?&
A&total&publication&ban&issued&by&a&judge&might&impair&freedom&of&the&press&
unreasonably.
!
But&if&the&ban&in&partial,&e.g.&publishers&cannot&publish&the&names&or&any&ID&of&
the&victim&of&e.g.&sexual&assault&in&the&case.&It&doesn’t&prevent&the&media&from&
publishing&facts,&etc.&It&just&says&the&media&cannot&publish&the&names&of&the&
victims&for&e.g.&That&still&infringes&freedom&of&press.&The&judge&still&issued&an&
order&that&stops&the&media&from&doing&something.&Freedom&of&press&allows&
media&to&report&and&publish&anything.&The&court&order&infringes&freedom&of&the&
press&minimally.&
!
Sometimes&we&have&questions&that&are&essential&and&fundamental&to&a&case&but&
they&are&not&answerable&as&they&stand&so&to&answer&the&key&question&that&is&set&
out&in&para&4&you&cant&answer&it&on&those&terms.&That’s&why&that&question&is&
broken&down&in&4&parts.&
!
If&a&piece&of&legislation&that’s&being&challenged&that&infringes&price&of&expressiondoes&
it&impair&or&infringe&expression&as&minimally&as&possible&to&achieve&govt.&objectives?&
Does&copyright&subsist&in&the&11&works&that&have&allegedly&been&infringed.
!
!"#-$% (pg&347)
If&copyright&exist&then&we&continue
Authorization.
!
How&can&you&extrapolate&the&authorization&issue&from&this&case&to&the&e.g.&fair&
dealings&and&users&rights&sections&of&the&copyright&act.&
!
!"#-$4
Fair&dealings&in&copyright&section&
!
Section&29.&fair&dealings&provision.&
!
Copying&the&work1.
In&such&a&way&in&which&your&deals&are&not&fair&
!
Dealing&2.
One&of&the&2&ways&for&infringing&copyrights:
!
Dealings&are&fair&in&this&context&if&the&dealing&is&for&research1.
Or&private&study&2.
For&a&work&to&be&fair&dealing&there&is&a&2&part&test:
!
Section&29…fair&dealing&is&an&exception&to&liability&of&copyright&act&
!
Research&is&not&necessarily&private&study&
!
Private&study&vs.&public&study?
!
Private&study&is&animated&by&a&category&which&could&be&considered&a&public&
study
!
Public&study&could&be&previewing&copyrighted&music&files&as&part&of&an&effort&to&
maybe&study&them&for&the&purposes&of&purchasing&its&part&of&your&
research…that’s&research&no&studying.&
!
Research&is&a&specified&category&here.
!
It&only&has&meanings&when&put&in&context&of&a&set&of&facts.
!
Basis&on&fact&of&the&case&and&use&of&those&material&in&this&case&the&concern&is&
with&research&and&private&study.&
!
There&might&be&fair&dealings&with&respect&to&parody&in&some&context.&Language&
matters.
!
Fair&dealings&captures&users&rights.
!
Users&rights&provisions&which&are&the&key&public&policy&interest&captured&by&
parliament&in&legislation&they&are&profoundly&ethical&in&their&nature&
!
Users&rights&fall&under&the&fair&dealings&provision&
!
1&form&of&users&rights&
!
1&exception&under&the&copyright&act&is&fair&dealing
!
Another&form&of&users&right&is&nonJcommercial&users&generated&content.
!
There&are&various&exceptions,&for&our&purposes&we&only&deal&with&what&nonJ
commercial&user&generated&content&is&(learn&yourself)
!
!"#-$&
The&cross&appeal&is&treated&and&described&at&para&5.
!
You're&only&interested&&in&first&issue&of&cross&appeal.&
!
It’s&the&cross&appeal&
!
This&tells&us&that&the&copyright&confers&upon&the&sole&right&to&
communicate&the&work&to&public&by&telecommunication&by&copyright&
holders.
!
Only&the&publishers&have&the&right&to&communicate&their&work&to&the&
public&by&telecommunication.&
!
In&the&context&of&CCH&it&becomes&interested&to&determine&who&the&
public&is
!
If&fax&is&used&to&send&work&to&single&source&
!
It’s&the&reasoning&there,&logic,&what&ifs
!
Fax&transmission&is&reliant&upon&telecommunication&means&by&which&
the&signals&and&data&being&send&have&the&potential&of&being&
communicated&to&the&public&
!
Hypotheticals&
!
What&court&concluded&the&very&specific&issues&with&CCH&Canadian&
!
Is&streaming&communication&to&the&public?&That’s&where&the&stuff&
becomes&interesting&in&contemporary&context.&
!
What&constitutes&the&public
!
:7;-)2+$&<%=<5=$
!
>#288$"??7",$(para&5)
Sampling&in&pop&music&industry&for&20&years&has&developed&and&relied&upon&
practice&of&sampling&
!
Its&captured&in&the&body&of&legislation&that&are&being&forced&to&grapple&with&on&
the&one&had&creators&and&copyright&holders&rights&and&on&the&other&hand&users&
rights&that&are&interested&in&producing&user&generated&content&for&nonJ
commercial&purposes.
!
As&a&cultural&form&sampling&is&now&recognized&as&an&artistic&practice.
!
One&of&the&objective&of&copyright&act&is&to&balance&rights&of&holders&of&copyrights&
and&protect&their&rights&from&their&works&from&being&ripped&off&from&others.&But&
also&owners&and&users&rights.
!
What&about&the&rights&of&producers&of&content&through&these&cultural&practices?
!
These&are&things&you&see&reflected&in&user&generated&provisions&of&copyright&act&
!
:7;-)2+$4@'4$<%=
!
MCP&question&authorization&was&an&issue&on&appeal&in&this&caseimplication&is&
profound.&
A2+$;2BB7#;)",$087#C*7+7#"-76$;2+-7+-$
!
There&is&this&notion&of&potential&liability&by&providing&means&within&a&household&
in&such&a&way&that&the&means&could&be&used&to&infringe&copyrights&
!
If&I&am&providing&the&means&by&which&a&member&of&the&household&could&then&
infringe&copyright,&via&the&means&I&provided,&am&I&authorizing&it?&E.g.&by&
providing&wiJfi&hotspot.&
!
Issue&of&authorization&on&appeal&take&the&logic&which&was&applied&by&the&
supreme&court&on&the&authorizing&issue&and&read&the&provision&in&the&application&
there.&
!
Within&smart&homes&using&smart&devices&there&is&a&potential&for&you&to&engage&
in&copyright&infringement&in&a&way&they&may&not&be&generated&nonJcommercial,&
but&rather&commercial&user&generated&content.&If&such&authorization&leads&to&
that&outcome,&the&you&have&lost&your&exception.&
!
This&clause&only&provides&protection&from&copyright&infringement&only&for&nonJ
commercial&content.&
!
What&constitutes&member&of&a&household?&What&is&a&member&residing&your&
household?
!
:7;-)2+$4D'4%$<%=
!"#$%&"'(')*+,'-''.//0'/+1+23+1'/+4"5'
Wednesday,& September& 23,&2015
7:01&PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Fixed&in&a&material&form
Copyright&protects&the&expression&of&ideas
Copyright&is&a&creature&of&status.
Copyright&law&does&not&protect&ideas&it&protects&their&expression.
Original1.
Fixed&in&a&medium&2.
What&are&2&statutory&requires&for&a&work&to&enjoy&protection&under&copyright:
How&can&you&infringe&the&copyright&act:&by&making&a&copy.&Which&then&follows&
authorization&
Fair&dealings&is&one&of&the&issues&at&hand&in&this&case.
More&generally&when&we&talk&about&dealings&we&talk&about&how&people&deal&in&
copyrighted&works.&You&can&deal&legally&by&reproducing&an&image&cause&you&have&a&
license&to&do&so.&
The&nature&of&dealing,&the&way&you&deal&is&one&way&in&which&you&can&infringe&
copyrights.
Ethics&is&a&system&of&regulations&and&provide&framework&within&which&individuals&can&
enact&their&morals
Ethics&in&a&sense&can&be&looked&at&as&being&embodied,&as&an&act.&
Onus&Jburden,&if&something&is&a&burden&you.&You&have&to&do&it.
You&are&innocent&until&proven&guilty,&onus&is&on&the&crown&to&prove&your&guilt,&not&on&
the&accuse&to&prove&your&innocence.&
Although&a&reverse&onus&clause&in&and&itself&is&unconstitutional,&the&govt.&can&when&
they&are&taken&to&court,&but&it&is&a&reasonable&and&demonstrably&justifiable&
infringement&of&charter&right&freedom.&
To&achieve&policy&objectives&(narcotics&control).&
Its&one&thing&to&be&convicted&of&mere&possession&of&narcotics,&it’s&a&whole&other&thing&
to&be&convicted&of&trafficking.&
When&you&take&policy&objectives&and&embody&them&in&legislation&you&can&draw&on&
them&in&public&policy&and&ethics&in&legislation.&Statute&constitutes&ethical&structure.&
That&ethical&framework&for&governing&is&embodied&in&legislation.&
The&fair&dealings&provision&section&29.&of&copyright&acts&also&embody&users&rights.&
The&copyright&act&was&amended&by&virtue&of&another&piece&of&legislation.&
Copyright&modernization&act&that&produced&the&amendments&in&this&bill.&
Policy&argument:&one&of&the&huge&arguments&amongst&several&was&to&do&with&users&
rights&as&a&recognition&in&society.&Digital&network,&technology,&software.&Data&
manipulation.&
Ways&of&monetizing&and&privatizing&data.&
Info&not&necessarily&in&a&physical&form,&but&rather&IT&society&causes&challenges&with&
material&in&the&"form"&these&things&take&is&digital&in&nature.&
Law&is&statutory&embodiment&of&public&policy.
!
What&is&relationship&between&ethics,&law,&public&policy.
Having&laws&reflect&the&internet,&technological&changes.&Etc.&
!
After&15&years&to&have&parliament&amend&the&copyright&act.&And&have&legislation&
recognize&technology&changes.&
Cassette&tapes&are&screwing&copyright&owners&of&all&kinds&of&royalties.&
Canadian&copyright&holders&were&getting&screwed&at&millions&of&$&in&royalties.&
Users&rights&under&section&29&of&copyright&act&are&reflected&in&fair&dealings&of&copyright&
act.
Those&fair&dealings&provisions&embody&the&concept&of&users&rights&which&is&a&
recognition&of&realities& of&digital&tech&and&age,&to&produce&what&is&referred&to&as&user&
generated&content.&
users&rights&advocate,&open&policy&advocates&
!
User&generated&content&is&captured&for&the&first&time&in&section&29.21.&
It&is&therefore&public&policy&embodied&in&statutory&form.
Public&policy&debates&are&guided&by&ethics,&often&colliding&ethical&perspectives,&in&this&
case&users&rights.
Much&of&the&content&now&at&play&or&available&via&the&internet&/&WWW&in&particular&and&
social&media&platforms,&it&is&content&generated&by&users,&not&traditionally&by&corporate&
entities&e.g.&media&corporations,&newspaper&publishers&(Formally&constituted&entity).
Digital&practices,&their&infusion&in&cultural&practices&have&diffused&even&further&to&
everybody,&now&everyone&virtually&is&a&content&provider.&
Providing&users&ability&to&generate&content&for&non&commercial&use&thereby&allows&
such&users&to&infringe&copyrights&without&being&penalized.&
A&legal&safe&haven&for&creators&to&produce&works&for&nonJcommercial&purposes&which&
require&the&incorporation&in&some&way&of&copyrighted&works.&
29.2&is&known&as&the&Youtube&clause/provision.&Because&content&production&on&
youtube,&majority&is&user&generated&content.&E.g.&video&you&upload&on&Youtube&uses&
an&existing&track&but&this&is&infringing&copyright.&Using&copyrighted&work&without&
infringement.&If&the&user&generated&content&that&does&in&fact&infringe&copyright,&as&
long&as&it&meets&the&criteria& in&the&legislation& that&it&is&user&generated&content&that&is&
not&commercial&in&nature,&then&you&are&no&infringing&copyrights.&
User&generated&content&falls&under&the&user&generators&rights&provisions&of&the&
copyright&act.&Fair&dealings.&Escape,&safe&haven&for&the&user.&As&long&as&your&dealings&
are&fair&then&you&are&not&infringing&copyright.&
You&can&valorize&something&for&a&commercial&game/return&is&not&necessarily&
money.
!
But&there&are&other&modes&to&valorize&(imputing&of&value&into&something)
The&language&of&user&provisions&are&being&interpreted&and&unfolded&practice.&
Commercial&is&not&necessarily&monetary&value.&&
This&is&conceptual&problem&in&terms&of&setting&out,&defining,&conceptualizing&and&
ultimately&setting&out&the&scope&of&what&constitutes&users&rights&and&what&are&the&
limits&users&have&with&respect&to&the&use&of&copyrighted&works&incorporated&into&the&
production&of&content.
On&the&other&hand&what&is&the&scope&of&the&owners&rights,&the&owners&of&copyrights.&
There&is&a&distinction&of&owner&and&creator&of&copyrights.&
You&can&assign&the&economic&rights&by&assigning&the&copyright&in&a&work&through&a&
contractual&arrangement,&whereby&in&return&for&money&you&assign&your&copyright.
The&creator&in&that&e.g.&is&no&longer&a&copyright&holder,&they&still&have&their&moral&right&
but&not&economic&rights.&
!"#"$%&'
Distinction&b/w&owner's&right&and&copyright&holders&rights.
The&owner&may&not&necessarily&own&the&copyright&in&that&work.&
What&is&scope&of&such&rights.&Scope&of&users&rights?
Implicit&in&the&judgement&and&an&outcome&that&you&can&infer,&you&also&have&a&situation&
where&the&court&must&strike&a&balance&between&those&2&competing&interests.&
Owners&and&creators&of&copyright&and&the&users&of&copyright.&
Pushing&boundaries,&creation,&creating&new&things&
There&has&to&be&recognition&that&the&owners&of&copyrighted&works&such&as&the&gallery&
owners&in&Theberge.&There&rights&and&interests&have&to&be&respected&and&balanced&as&
well.&
Fair&dealing&provision.&Exception&in&the&sense&that&fair&dealings&allow&you&to&fairly&deal&
in&copyrighted&works&even&if&you're&infringing&the&copyright.&As&long&as&&you&meet&the&
requirements&of&the&test&for&determining&what&is&fair.&
In&law&we&talk&about&fair&dealing,&philosophically&what&is&fair?
Your&right&to&freedom&is&guaranteed&but&not&absolute.&
We&have&authorization&and&fair&dealing&as&matters&that&have&to&be&required&by&the&
court.&
There&are&multiple&things&that&supreme&court&of&Canada&has&to&interpret&scope&of&
owner's&rights&and&users&rights,&fair&dealings&section.
What&qualifies&for&copyright&protection:&originality&
Fixation&is&not&at&issue&here.&Its&presumed.&Fixation&in&other&words&is&not&an&issue&from&
interpretive&perspective.&They&are&not&concerned&with&fixation,&they&are&not&fixing&
There&are&11&judicial&decisions,&they&are&published&works&that&embody&the&decisions,&
they&are&already&fixed.&There&are&11&works&but&the&copyright&is&held&ostensivily&by&the&
publishers.
The&nature&of&the&works&in&very&imp&because&the&application&of&the&law&and&
interpretation&is&dependent&upon&the&facts&of&the&case.&The&facts&always&matter.&
Realizations&that&the&facts&matter,&the&application&and&interpretation&of&legislation&can&
only&take&place&in&set&of&facts&that&set&out&boundaries&for&interpretation.&
The&interpretation&of&the&meaning&of&authorization&infringement&can&only&take&place&
with&respect&to&the&facts&before&court.&What&we&have&here&then&are&works.
It’s&the&first&issue&to&be&dealt&with&
!
The&works&in&question&contain&very&specific&elements
!
We&take&that&a&step&further:&the&works&in&question&are&recorded&judicial&
decisions.&
!
Why&is&originality&at&issues?&
The&cases&here&are&all&public&domain,&they&are&all&Supreme&Court&of&Canada&
judgement.&
You&can&get&them&for&free.&But&what&happens&in&this&case&of&the&legal&publisher,&
reporting&judicial&decisions?&
They&are&all&taking&the&same&judgement&from&Supreme&court&Canada&in&a&case.&
The&argument&is&that&a&requirement&if&you&want&to&attract&copyright&for&the&publishers&
to&take&that&supreme&court&judgement,&they&have&to&do&something&to&make&it&original.&
We&find&it&in&the&copyright&act&section&5.&sub&1.&
Works&in&which&copyright&must&subsist&in&order&to&be&original&
If&work&isn't&original&it&cannot&be&copyrighted
Original
!
In&any&material&form&whatever
Now&that&we&are&in&digital&age,&its&becoming&more&difficult&to&
interpret&what&constitutes&material&in&the&traditional&legal&dictionary&
explanation&of&material.
!
Digital&info,&digital&files.
!
Underlying&data&that&could&be&reconstituted&
!
You&have&to&understand&how&technology&works
!
What&constitutes&material?
Fixed&in&a&medium&&
!
2&statutory&requirements&for&a&work&to&enjoy&copyright&requirements:
For&the&statutory&requirement&of&fixation&we&go&to&section&3&of&subsection&1.&
Copyright&shall&subsist&in&Canada.&
Understand&how&they&animate&more&generally&the&concept&of&originality.&
The&fundamental&question&that&is&there&it&has&to&be&determined.&Whether&or&not&it&
attaches&to.&
The&question&is&the&work&that&is&done&by&the&individual&publishing&companies&to&the&
reported&judgements.&
The&question&becomes&are&they&just&merely&copying&the&judgement&from&supreme&
court&of&canada&and&sticking&in&their&publication&and&charging&for&this?&
They&cannot&argue&that&copyright&has&been&infringed&if&infact&copyright&does&not&
subsist&in&those&11&works.&
In&every&case&you&cant&assert&copyright&has&been&infringed&that&work&in&question&is&in&
fact&original.&
Thats&why&its&a&big&deal&here&cause&the&facts&of&the&case&as&such…the&publishing&
companies&the&work&they&do&to&the&actual&judgement&is&it&enough&work&with&respect&
to&the&summaries,&indices,&is&that&"work"&attracting&copyright?&Is&it&enough&that&
staffers&of&CCH&Canadian&write&their&own&summaries&of&case?
Thats&why&originality&is&the&prime&issue&in&this&case.&The&supreme&court&of&Canada&
agreed&to&hear&this&appeal&among&other&reasons&the&very&ground&of&this&case.&
The&work&that&was&done&has&to&be&of&such&a&standard&that&it&infact&produces&original&
work.&Which&goes&to&the&question&of&is&that&work&satisfactory?&
In&other&words,&one&of&the&traditional&standards…is&the&sweat&of&the&brow&approach.&
A&work&had&to&be&produced&subject&to&a&certain&degree&
What&exactly&is&the&service&offer&by&the&law&society&is&very&specific&in&nature&with&
respect&to&how&technology&is&used&and&you&separate&the&issue&of&the&service&providing&
single&copy&providing&that&to&the&issue&of&technology.&Fax&equipped&photocopy&
machine.&
Whether&or&not&by&acknowledging&warning&people&about&copyright&infringement&and&
providing&means&for&engaging&infringement,&does&that&constitute&copyright&
infringement?&
Be&familiar&with&facts&in&publications&of&the&issue,&what&made&them&unique.
The&next&step&is&the&service:&what&is&the&specific&service&offered?
The&service&is&not&the&same&as&technology&offered&to&publish
These&basic&facts&are&very&imp&to&study&and&follow&the&case.&
At&law&that&is&know&as&the&
Reasons&for&decision,&reason&for&judgement
!
What&are&the&reasons&given
!
But&you&can&appreciate&and&understand&the&reasons&and&their&import&for&solving&
the&ethical&dilemmas
!
The&supreme&court&of&Canada&is&an&appeal&court.&Appeal&from&a&lower&court.
Federal,&provincial&court&of&appeal,&etc.
If&its&an&appeal&court&their&job&is&to&hear&the&appeals.&
Appeal&is&appeal&from&a&decision&of&a&lower&court.
In&this&instance&you&need&to&understand&what&party&is&the&appellant&(the&party&that&
brought&the&appeal),&responded&(the&responding&party).
The&appeal&should&be&allowed&means&the&appellant&wins.
This&case&is&a&bit&tricky&because&you&have&party&as&the&appellant&in&some&issues&but&the&
responded&in&other&issues&and&inversely&vice&versa.&
Therefore,&the&publishers&are&the&respondents&on&the&issues&that&the&law&society&is&
appealing.&
Cross&appeal&in&this&case.&
There&is&an&appeal&and&a&cross&appeal,&they&are&happening&at&the&same&time.&
E.g.&examination&and&cross&examination&of&a&witness.
They&are&separate&issues&from&the&issue&of&cross&appeal.
(#)*)+",)-.%'
/0-12#)3"-)2+$4'
5")#$67",)+*8$&'
Consent&(no&concerned&with&this)&4.
On&appeal&is&issue&of:
Para&13.&deals&with&originality,&authorization&and&fair&dealings.&
If&there&is&CMN&to&public&without&authorization&then&there&is&infringement&
!
Communication&to&the&public&1.
Issue&on&cross&appeal:
Para&4.&sets&out&the&issues&on&appeal.&
What&does&the&service&consist&of?&
There&is&only&single&copies&from&self&service& photocopiers.&
It’s&the&provision&and&the&maintenance&of&the&selfJservice&photocopiers&that&the&
publishers&are&saying&that&there&is&implied&authorization.&
The&law&society&may&not&be&implicitly& authorizing&but&it&is&reasonable&inference&that&
they&are&authorizing.&
More&and&more&of&our&tech&is&now&driven&by&smart&technology.
Authorization&Jliability&providing&service& to&their&clients&that&ISP&provide&the&
service&that&is&used&to&engage&in&wideJspread&copyright&infringement.&Put&this&in&
the&concept&of&ISP:&authorization&and&copyright.&
1.
Consider:&
The&liability& that&ISP&might&potentially&attractive&copyright&infringement&
E.g.&Smart&homes&are&a&logical&extension&of&smart&phones
!
Thinking&past&surface&level,&rather&consider&smart&phones&as&a&
manifestation&of&a&much&deeper&reality& of&internet&and&network&society.
!
Extension&of&the&logic&of&the&smart&phone&to&the&smart&home&&e.g.&
thermostat.&
!
The&internet&of&things&is&just&another&reality&to&consider&with&respect&to&
the&idea&of&authorization&
!
Ethical&problem&whereby&we&have&the&emergence&of&the&internet&of&things.&
Forward&thinking&of&e.g.&google&moving&into&a&different&product&category.&
2.
!"#"$9'
We&now&come&up&to&how&the&question&that&is&set&out&at&the&start&of&the&para&4&it&is&
unanswerable&in&front&of&the&courts.&
Section&1&of&charter&rights&and&freedoms…allows&us&the&challenge&govt.&legislation&
being&as&infringement&of&rights&of&freedom.&Is&it&reasonable?&That&question&is&not&
answerable&in&any&real&practical&court&situation.&
We&take&big&questions&and&break&them&down&into&component&parts&that&are&
manageable&and&answerable.
By&considered&whether&the&infringing&legislation&does&it&impair&the&right&of&freedom&of&
question?&
A&total&publication&ban&issued&by&a&judge&might&impair&freedom&of&the&press&
unreasonably.
!
But&if&the&ban&in&partial,&e.g.&publishers&cannot&publish&the&names&or&any&ID&of&
the&victim&of&e.g.&sexual&assault&in&the&case.&It&doesn’t&prevent&the&media&from&
publishing&facts,&etc.&It&just&says&the&media&cannot&publish&the&names&of&the&
victims&for&e.g.&That&still&infringes&freedom&of&press.&The&judge&still&issued&an&
order&that&stops&the&media&from&doing&something.&Freedom&of&press&allows&
media&to&report&and&publish&anything.&The&court&order&infringes&freedom&of&the&
press&minimally.&
!
Sometimes&we&have&questions&that&are&essential&and&fundamental&to&a&case&but&
they&are&not&answerable&as&they&stand&so&to&answer&the&key&question&that&is&set&
out&in&para&4&you&cant&answer&it&on&those&terms.&That’s&why&that&question&is&
broken&down&in&4&parts.&
!
If&a&piece&of&legislation&that’s&being&challenged&that&infringes&price&of&expressiondoes&
it&impair&or&infringe&expression&as&minimally&as&possible&to&achieve&govt.&objectives?&
Does&copyright&subsist&in&the&11&works&that&have&allegedly&been&infringed.
!
!"#-$% (pg&347)
If&copyright&exist&then&we&continue
Authorization.
!
How&can&you&extrapolate&the&authorization&issue&from&this&case&to&the&e.g.&fair&
dealings&and&users&rights&sections&of&the&copyright&act.&
!
!"#-$4
Fair&dealings&in&copyright&section&
!
Section&29.&fair&dealings&provision.&
!
Copying&the&work1.
In&such&a&way&in&which&your&deals&are&not&fair&
!
Dealing&2.
One&of&the&2&ways&for&infringing&copyrights:
!
Dealings&are&fair&in&this&context&if&the&dealing&is&for&research1.
Or&private&study&2.
For&a&work&to&be&fair&dealing&there&is&a&2&part&test:
!
Section&29…fair&dealing&is&an&exception&to&liability&of&copyright&act&
!
Research&is&not&necessarily&private&study&
!
Private&study&vs.&public&study?
!
Private&study&is&animated&by&a&category&which&could&be&considered&a&public&
study
!
Public&study&could&be&previewing&copyrighted&music&files&as&part&of&an&effort&to&
maybe&study&them&for&the&purposes&of&purchasing&its&part&of&your&
research…that’s&research&no&studying.&
!
Research&is&a&specified&category&here.
!
It&only&has&meanings&when&put&in&context&of&a&set&of&facts.
!
Basis&on&fact&of&the&case&and&use&of&those&material&in&this&case&the&concern&is&
with&research&and&private&study.&
!
There&might&be&fair&dealings&with&respect&to&parody&in&some&context.&Language&
matters.
!
Fair&dealings&captures&users&rights.
!
Users&rights&provisions&which&are&the&key&public&policy&interest&captured&by&
parliament&in&legislation&they&are&profoundly&ethical&in&their&nature&
!
Users&rights&fall&under&the&fair&dealings&provision&
!
1&form&of&users&rights&
!
1&exception&under&the&copyright&act&is&fair&dealing
!
Another&form&of&users&right&is&nonJcommercial&users&generated&content.
!
There&are&various&exceptions,&for&our&purposes&we&only&deal&with&what&nonJ
commercial&user&generated&content&is&(learn&yourself)
!
!"#-$&
The&cross&appeal&is&treated&and&described&at&para&5.
!
You're&only&interested&&in&first&issue&of&cross&appeal.&
!
It’s&the&cross&appeal&
!
This&tells&us&that&the&copyright&confers&upon&the&sole&right&to&
communicate&the&work&to&public&by&telecommunication&by&copyright&
holders.
!
Only&the&publishers&have&the&right&to&communicate&their&work&to&the&
public&by&telecommunication.&
!
In&the&context&of&CCH&it&becomes&interested&to&determine&who&the&
public&is
!
If&fax&is&used&to&send&work&to&single&source&
!
It’s&the&reasoning&there,&logic,&what&ifs
!
Fax&transmission&is&reliant&upon&telecommunication&means&by&which&
the&signals&and&data&being&send&have&the&potential&of&being&
communicated&to&the&public&
!
Hypotheticals&
!
What&court&concluded&the&very&specific&issues&with&CCH&Canadian&
!
Is&streaming&communication&to&the&public?&That’s&where&the&stuff&
becomes&interesting&in&contemporary&context.&
!
What&constitutes&the&public
!
:7;-)2+$&<%=<5=$
!
>#288$"??7",$(para&5)
Sampling&in&pop&music&industry&for&20&years&has&developed&and&relied&upon&
practice&of&sampling&
!
Its&captured&in&the&body&of&legislation&that&are&being&forced&to&grapple&with&on&
the&one&had&creators&and&copyright&holders&rights&and&on&the&other&hand&users&
rights&that&are&interested&in&producing&user&generated&content&for&nonJ
commercial&purposes.
!
As&a&cultural&form&sampling&is&now&recognized&as&an&artistic&practice.
!
One&of&the&objective&of&copyright&act&is&to&balance&rights&of&holders&of&copyrights&
and&protect&their&rights&from&their&works&from&being&ripped&off&from&others.&But&
also&owners&and&users&rights.
!
What&about&the&rights&of&producers&of&content&through&these&cultural&practices?
!
These&are&things&you&see&reflected&in&user&generated&provisions&of&copyright&act&
!
:7;-)2+$4@'4$<%=
!
MCP&question&authorization&was&an&issue&on&appeal&in&this&caseimplication&is&
profound.&
A2+$;2BB7#;)",$087#C*7+7#"-76$;2+-7+-$
!
There&is&this&notion&of&potential&liability&by&providing&means&within&a&household&
in&such&a&way&that&the&means&could&be&used&to&infringe&copyrights&
!
If&I&am&providing&the&means&by&which&a&member&of&the&household&could&then&
infringe&copyright,&via&the&means&I&provided,&am&I&authorizing&it?&E.g.&by&
providing&wiJfi&hotspot.&
!
Issue&of&authorization&on&appeal&take&the&logic&which&was&applied&by&the&
supreme&court&on&the&authorizing&issue&and&read&the&provision&in&the&application&
there.&
!
Within&smart&homes&using&smart&devices&there&is&a&potential&for&you&to&engage&
in&copyright&infringement&in&a&way&they&may&not&be&generated&nonJcommercial,&
but&rather&commercial&user&generated&content.&If&such&authorization&leads&to&
that&outcome,&the&you&have&lost&your&exception.&
!
This&clause&only&provides&protection&from&copyright&infringement&only&for&nonJ
commercial&content.&
!
What&constitutes&member&of&a&household?&What&is&a&member&residing&your&
household?
!
:7;-)2+$4D'4%$<%=
!"#$%&"'(')*+,'-''.//0'/+1+23+1'/+4"5'
Wednesday,& September& 23,&2015 7:01&PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Fixed&in&a&material&form
Copyright&protects&the&expression&of&ideas
Copyright&is&a&creature&of&status.
Copyright&law&does&not&protect&ideas&it&protects&their&expression.
Original1.
Fixed&in&a&medium&2.
What&are&2&statutory&requires&for&a&work&to&enjoy&protection&under&copyright:
How&can&you&infringe&the&copyright&act:&by&making&a&copy.&Which&then&follows&
authorization&
Fair&dealings&is&one&of&the&issues&at&hand&in&this&case.
More&generally&when&we&talk&about&dealings&we&talk&about&how&people&deal&in&
copyrighted&works.&You&can&deal&legally&by&reproducing&an&image&cause&you&have&a&
license&to&do&so.&
The&nature&of&dealing,&the&way&you&deal&is&one&way&in&which&you&can&infringe&
copyrights.
Ethics&is&a&system&of&regulations&and&provide&framework&within&which&individuals&can&
enact&their&morals
Ethics&in&a&sense&can&be&looked&at&as&being&embodied,&as&an&act.&
Onus&Jburden,&if&something&is&a&burden&you.&You&have&to&do&it.
You&are&innocent&until&proven&guilty,&onus&is&on&the&crown&to&prove&your&guilt,&not&on&
the&accuse&to&prove&your&innocence.&
Although&a&reverse&onus&clause&in&and&itself&is&unconstitutional,&the&govt.&can&when&
they&are&taken&to&court,&but&it&is&a&reasonable&and&demonstrably&justifiable&
infringement&of&charter&right&freedom.&
To&achieve&policy&objectives&(narcotics&control).&
Its&one&thing&to&be&convicted&of&mere&possession&of&narcotics,&it’s&a&whole&other&thing&
to&be&convicted&of&trafficking.&
When&you&take&policy&objectives&and&embody&them&in&legislation&you&can&draw&on&
them&in&public&policy&and&ethics&in&legislation.&Statute&constitutes&ethical&structure.&
That&ethical&framework&for&governing&is&embodied&in&legislation.&
The&fair&dealings&provision&section&29.&of&copyright&acts&also&embody&users&rights.&
The&copyright&act&was&amended&by&virtue&of&another&piece&of&legislation.&
Copyright&modernization&act&that&produced&the&amendments&in&this&bill.&
Policy&argument:&one&of&the&huge&arguments&amongst&several&was&to&do&with&users&
rights&as&a&recognition&in&society.&Digital&network,&technology,&software.&Data&
manipulation.&
Ways&of&monetizing&and&privatizing&data.&
Info&not&necessarily&in&a&physical&form,&but&rather&IT&society&causes&challenges&with&
material&in&the&"form"&these&things&take&is&digital&in&nature.&
Law&is&statutory&embodiment&of&public&policy.
!
What&is&relationship&between&ethics,&law,&public&policy.
Having&laws&reflect&the&internet,&technological&changes.&Etc.&
!
After&15&years&to&have&parliament&amend&the&copyright&act.&And&have&legislation&
recognize&technology&changes.&
Cassette&tapes&are&screwing&copyright&owners&of&all&kinds&of&royalties.&
Canadian&copyright&holders&were&getting&screwed&at&millions&of&$&in&royalties.&
Users&rights&under&section&29&of&copyright&act&are&reflected&in&fair&dealings&of&copyright&
act.
Those&fair&dealings&provisions&embody&the&concept&of&users&rights&which&is&a&
recognition&of&realities& of&digital&tech&and&age,&to&produce&what&is&referred&to&as&user&
generated&content.&
users&rights&advocate,&open&policy&advocates&
!
User&generated&content&is&captured&for&the&first&time&in&section&29.21.&
It&is&therefore&public&policy&embodied&in&statutory&form.
Public&policy&debates&are&guided&by&ethics,&often&colliding&ethical&perspectives,&in&this&
case&users&rights.
Much&of&the&content&now&at&play&or&available&via&the&internet&/&WWW&in&particular&and&
social&media&platforms,&it&is&content&generated&by&users,&not&traditionally&by&corporate&
entities&e.g.&media&corporations,&newspaper&publishers&(Formally&constituted&entity).
Digital&practices,&their&infusion&in&cultural&practices&have&diffused&even&further&to&
everybody,&now&everyone&virtually&is&a&content&provider.&
Providing&users&ability&to&generate&content&for&non&commercial&use&thereby&allows&
such&users&to&infringe&copyrights&without&being&penalized.&
A&legal&safe&haven&for&creators&to&produce&works&for&nonJcommercial&purposes&which&
require&the&incorporation&in&some&way&of&copyrighted&works.&
29.2&is&known&as&the&Youtube&clause/provision.&Because&content&production&on&
youtube,&majority&is&user&generated&content.&E.g.&video&you&upload&on&Youtube&uses&
an&existing&track&but&this&is&infringing&copyright.&Using&copyrighted&work&without&
infringement.&If&the&user&generated&content&that&does&in&fact&infringe&copyright,&as&
long&as&it&meets&the&criteria& in&the&legislation& that&it&is&user&generated&content&that&is&
not&commercial&in&nature,&then&you&are&no&infringing&copyrights.&
User&generated&content&falls&under&the&user&generators&rights&provisions&of&the&
copyright&act.&Fair&dealings.&Escape,&safe&haven&for&the&user.&As&long&as&your&dealings&
are&fair&then&you&are&not&infringing&copyright.&
You&can&valorize&something&for&a&commercial&game/return&is&not&necessarily&
money.
!
But&there&are&other&modes&to&valorize&(imputing&of&value&into&something)
The&language&of&user&provisions&are&being&interpreted&and&unfolded&practice.&
Commercial&is&not&necessarily&monetary&value.&&
This&is&conceptual&problem&in&terms&of&setting&out,&defining,&conceptualizing&and&
ultimately&setting&out&the&scope&of&what&constitutes&users&rights&and&what&are&the&
limits&users&have&with&respect&to&the&use&of&copyrighted&works&incorporated&into&the&
production&of&content.
On&the&other&hand&what&is&the&scope&of&the&owners&rights,&the&owners&of&copyrights.&
There&is&a&distinction&of&owner&and&creator&of&copyrights.&
You&can&assign&the&economic&rights&by&assigning&the&copyright&in&a&work&through&a&
contractual&arrangement,&whereby&in&return&for&money&you&assign&your&copyright.
The&creator&in&that&e.g.&is&no&longer&a&copyright&holder,&they&still&have&their&moral&right&
but&not&economic&rights.&
!"#"$%&'
Distinction&b/w&owner's&right&and&copyright&holders&rights.
The&owner&may&not&necessarily&own&the&copyright&in&that&work.&
What&is&scope&of&such&rights.&Scope&of&users&rights?
Implicit&in&the&judgement&and&an&outcome&that&you&can&infer,&you&also&have&a&situation&
where&the&court&must&strike&a&balance&between&those&2&competing&interests.&
Owners&and&creators&of&copyright&and&the&users&of&copyright.&
Pushing&boundaries,&creation,&creating&new&things&
There&has&to&be&recognition&that&the&owners&of&copyrighted&works&such&as&the&gallery&
owners&in&Theberge.&There&rights&and&interests&have&to&be&respected&and&balanced&as&
well.&
Fair&dealing&provision.&Exception&in&the&sense&that&fair&dealings&allow&you&to&fairly&deal&
in&copyrighted&works&even&if&you're&infringing&the&copyright.&As&long&as&&you&meet&the&
requirements&of&the&test&for&determining&what&is&fair.&
In&law&we&talk&about&fair&dealing,&philosophically&what&is&fair?
Your&right&to&freedom&is&guaranteed&but&not&absolute.&
We&have&authorization&and&fair&dealing&as&matters&that&have&to&be&required&by&the&
court.&
There&are&multiple&things&that&supreme&court&of&Canada&has&to&interpret&scope&of&
owner's&rights&and&users&rights,&fair&dealings&section.
What&qualifies&for&copyright&protection:&originality&
Fixation&is&not&at&issue&here.&Its&presumed.&Fixation&in&other&words&is&not&an&issue&from&
interpretive&perspective.&They&are&not&concerned&with&fixation,&they&are&not&fixing&
There&are&11&judicial&decisions,&they&are&published&works&that&embody&the&decisions,&
they&are&already&fixed.&There&are&11&works&but&the&copyright&is&held&ostensivily&by&the&
publishers.
The&nature&of&the&works&in&very&imp&because&the&application&of&the&law&and&
interpretation&is&dependent&upon&the&facts&of&the&case.&The&facts&always&matter.&
Realizations&that&the&facts&matter,&the&application&and&interpretation&of&legislation&can&
only&take&place&in&set&of&facts&that&set&out&boundaries&for&interpretation.&
The&interpretation&of&the&meaning&of&authorization&infringement&can&only&take&place&
with&respect&to&the&facts&before&court.&What&we&have&here&then&are&works.
It’s&the&first&issue&to&be&dealt&with&
!
The&works&in&question&contain&very&specific&elements
!
We&take&that&a&step&further:&the&works&in&question&are&recorded&judicial&
decisions.&
!
Why&is&originality&at&issues?&
The&cases&here&are&all&public&domain,&they&are&all&Supreme&Court&of&Canada&
judgement.&
You&can&get&them&for&free.&But&what&happens&in&this&case&of&the&legal&publisher,&
reporting&judicial&decisions?&
They&are&all&taking&the&same&judgement&from&Supreme&court&Canada&in&a&case.&
The&argument&is&that&a&requirement&if&you&want&to&attract&copyright&for&the&publishers&
to&take&that&supreme&court&judgement,&they&have&to&do&something&to&make&it&original.&
We&find&it&in&the&copyright&act&section&5.&sub&1.&
Works&in&which&copyright&must&subsist&in&order&to&be&original&
If&work&isn't&original&it&cannot&be&copyrighted
Original
!
In&any&material&form&whatever
Now&that&we&are&in&digital&age,&its&becoming&more&difficult&to&
interpret&what&constitutes&material&in&the&traditional&legal&dictionary&
explanation&of&material.
!
Digital&info,&digital&files.
!
Underlying&data&that&could&be&reconstituted&
!
You&have&to&understand&how&technology&works
!
What&constitutes&material?
Fixed&in&a&medium&&
!
2&statutory&requirements&for&a&work&to&enjoy&copyright&requirements:
For&the&statutory&requirement&of&fixation&we&go&to&section&3&of&subsection&1.&
Copyright&shall&subsist&in&Canada.&
Understand&how&they&animate&more&generally&the&concept&of&originality.&
The&fundamental&question&that&is&there&it&has&to&be&determined.&Whether&or&not&it&
attaches&to.&
The&question&is&the&work&that&is&done&by&the&individual&publishing&companies&to&the&
reported&judgements.&
The&question&becomes&are&they&just&merely&copying&the&judgement&from&supreme&
court&of&canada&and&sticking&in&their&publication&and&charging&for&this?&
They&cannot&argue&that&copyright&has&been&infringed&if&infact&copyright&does&not&
subsist&in&those&11&works.&
In&every&case&you&cant&assert&copyright&has&been&infringed&that&work&in&question&is&in&
fact&original.&
Thats&why&its&a&big&deal&here&cause&the&facts&of&the&case&as&such…the&publishing&
companies&the&work&they&do&to&the&actual&judgement&is&it&enough&work&with&respect&
to&the&summaries,&indices,&is&that&"work"&attracting&copyright?&Is&it&enough&that&
staffers&of&CCH&Canadian&write&their&own&summaries&of&case?
Thats&why&originality&is&the&prime&issue&in&this&case.&The&supreme&court&of&Canada&
agreed&to&hear&this&appeal&among&other&reasons&the&very&ground&of&this&case.&
The&work&that&was&done&has&to&be&of&such&a&standard&that&it&infact&produces&original&
work.&Which&goes&to&the&question&of&is&that&work&satisfactory?&
In&other&words,&one&of&the&traditional&standards…is&the&sweat&of&the&brow&approach.&
A&work&had&to&be&produced&subject&to&a&certain&degree&
What&exactly&is&the&service&offer&by&the&law&society&is&very&specific&in&nature&with&
respect&to&how&technology&is&used&and&you&separate&the&issue&of&the&service&providing&
single&copy&providing&that&to&the&issue&of&technology.&Fax&equipped&photocopy&
machine.&
Whether&or&not&by&acknowledging&warning&people&about&copyright&infringement&and&
providing&means&for&engaging&infringement,&does&that&constitute&copyright&
infringement?&
Be&familiar&with&facts&in&publications&of&the&issue,&what&made&them&unique.
The&next&step&is&the&service:&what&is&the&specific&service&offered?
The&service&is&not&the&same&as&technology&offered&to&publish
These&basic&facts&are&very&imp&to&study&and&follow&the&case.&
At&law&that&is&know&as&the&
Reasons&for&decision,&reason&for&judgement
!
What&are&the&reasons&given
!
But&you&can&appreciate&and&understand&the&reasons&and&their&import&for&solving&
the&ethical&dilemmas
!
The&supreme&court&of&Canada&is&an&appeal&court.&Appeal&from&a&lower&court.
Federal,&provincial&court&of&appeal,&etc.
If&its&an&appeal&court&their&job&is&to&hear&the&appeals.&
Appeal&is&appeal&from&a&decision&of&a&lower&court.
In&this&instance&you&need&to&understand&what&party&is&the&appellant&(the&party&that&
brought&the&appeal),&responded&(the&responding&party).
The&appeal&should&be&allowed&means&the&appellant&wins.
This&case&is&a&bit&tricky&because&you&have&party&as&the&appellant&in&some&issues&but&the&
responded&in&other&issues&and&inversely&vice&versa.&
Therefore,&the&publishers&are&the&respondents&on&the&issues&that&the&law&society&is&
appealing.&
Cross&appeal&in&this&case.&
There&is&an&appeal&and&a&cross&appeal,&they&are&happening&at&the&same&time.&
E.g.&examination&and&cross&examination&of&a&witness.
They&are&separate&issues&from&the&issue&of&cross&appeal.
(#)*)+",)-.%'
/0-12#)3"-)2+$4'
5")#$67",)+*8$&'
Consent&(no&concerned&with&this)&4.
On&appeal&is&issue&of:
Para&13.&deals&with&originality,&authorization&and&fair&dealings.&
If&there&is&CMN&to&public&without&authorization&then&there&is&infringement&
!
Communication&to&the&public&1.
Issue&on&cross&appeal:
Para&4.&sets&out&the&issues&on&appeal.&
What&does&the&service&consist&of?&
There&is&only&single&copies&from&self&service& photocopiers.&
It’s&the&provision&and&the&maintenance&of&the&selfJservice&photocopiers&that&the&
publishers&are&saying&that&there&is&implied&authorization.&
The&law&society&may&not&be&implicitly& authorizing&but&it&is&reasonable&inference&that&
they&are&authorizing.&
More&and&more&of&our&tech&is&now&driven&by&smart&technology.
Authorization&Jliability&providing&service& to&their&clients&that&ISP&provide&the&
service&that&is&used&to&engage&in&wideJspread&copyright&infringement.&Put&this&in&
the&concept&of&ISP:&authorization&and&copyright.&
1.
Consider:&
The&liability& that&ISP&might&potentially&attractive&copyright&infringement&
E.g.&Smart&homes&are&a&logical&extension&of&smart&phones
!
Thinking&past&surface&level,&rather&consider&smart&phones&as&a&
manifestation&of&a&much&deeper&reality& of&internet&and&network&society.
!
Extension&of&the&logic&of&the&smart&phone&to&the&smart&home&&e.g.&
thermostat.&
!
The&internet&of&things&is&just&another&reality&to&consider&with&respect&to&
the&idea&of&authorization&
!
Ethical&problem&whereby&we&have&the&emergence&of&the&internet&of&things.&
Forward&thinking&of&e.g.&google&moving&into&a&different&product&category.&
2.
!"#"$9'
We&now&come&up&to&how&the&question&that&is&set&out&at&the&start&of&the&para&4&it&is&
unanswerable&in&front&of&the&courts.&
Section&1&of&charter&rights&and&freedoms…allows&us&the&challenge&govt.&legislation&
being&as&infringement&of&rights&of&freedom.&Is&it&reasonable?&That&question&is&not&
answerable&in&any&real&practical&court&situation.&
We&take&big&questions&and&break&them&down&into&component&parts&that&are&
manageable&and&answerable.
By&considered&whether&the&infringing&legislation&does&it&impair&the&right&of&freedom&of&
question?&
A&total&publication&ban&issued&by&a&judge&might&impair&freedom&of&the&press&
unreasonably.
!
But&if&the&ban&in&partial,&e.g.&publishers&cannot&publish&the&names&or&any&ID&of&
the&victim&of&e.g.&sexual&assault&in&the&case.&It&doesn’t&prevent&the&media&from&
publishing&facts,&etc.&It&just&says&the&media&cannot&publish&the&names&of&the&
victims&for&e.g.&That&still&infringes&freedom&of&press.&The&judge&still&issued&an&
order&that&stops&the&media&from&doing&something.&Freedom&of&press&allows&
media&to&report&and&publish&anything.&The&court&order&infringes&freedom&of&the&
press&minimally.&
!
Sometimes&we&have&questions&that&are&essential&and&fundamental&to&a&case&but&
they&are&not&answerable&as&they&stand&so&to&answer&the&key&question&that&is&set&
out&in&para&4&you&cant&answer&it&on&those&terms.&That’s&why&that&question&is&
broken&down&in&4&parts.&
!
If&a&piece&of&legislation&that’s&being&challenged&that&infringes&price&of&expressiondoes&
it&impair&or&infringe&expression&as&minimally&as&possible&to&achieve&govt.&objectives?&
Does&copyright&subsist&in&the&11&works&that&have&allegedly&been&infringed.
!
!"#-$% (pg&347)
If&copyright&exist&then&we&continue
Authorization.
!
How&can&you&extrapolate&the&authorization&issue&from&this&case&to&the&e.g.&fair&
dealings&and&users&rights&sections&of&the&copyright&act.&
!
!"#-$4
Fair&dealings&in&copyright&section&
!
Section&29.&fair&dealings&provision.&
!
Copying&the&work1.
In&such&a&way&in&which&your&deals&are&not&fair&
!
Dealing&2.
One&of&the&2&ways&for&infringing&copyrights:
!
Dealings&are&fair&in&this&context&if&the&dealing&is&for&research1.
Or&private&study&2.
For&a&work&to&be&fair&dealing&there&is&a&2&part&test:
!
Section&29…fair&dealing&is&an&exception&to&liability&of&copyright&act&
!
Research&is&not&necessarily&private&study&
!
Private&study&vs.&public&study?
!
Private&study&is&animated&by&a&category&which&could&be&considered&a&public&
study
!
Public&study&could&be&previewing&copyrighted&music&files&as&part&of&an&effort&to&
maybe&study&them&for&the&purposes&of&purchasing&its&part&of&your&
research…that’s&research&no&studying.&
!
Research&is&a&specified&category&here.
!
It&only&has&meanings&when&put&in&context&of&a&set&of&facts.
!
Basis&on&fact&of&the&case&and&use&of&those&material&in&this&case&the&concern&is&
with&research&and&private&study.&
!
There&might&be&fair&dealings&with&respect&to&parody&in&some&context.&Language&
matters.
!
Fair&dealings&captures&users&rights.
!
Users&rights&provisions&which&are&the&key&public&policy&interest&captured&by&
parliament&in&legislation&they&are&profoundly&ethical&in&their&nature&
!
Users&rights&fall&under&the&fair&dealings&provision&
!
1&form&of&users&rights&
!
1&exception&under&the&copyright&act&is&fair&dealing
!
Another&form&of&users&right&is&nonJcommercial&users&generated&content.
!
There&are&various&exceptions,&for&our&purposes&we&only&deal&with&what&nonJ
commercial&user&generated&content&is&(learn&yourself)
!
!"#-$&
The&cross&appeal&is&treated&and&described&at&para&5.
!
You're&only&interested&&in&first&issue&of&cross&appeal.&
!
It’s&the&cross&appeal&
!
This&tells&us&that&the&copyright&confers&upon&the&sole&right&to&
communicate&the&work&to&public&by&telecommunication&by&copyright&
holders.
!
Only&the&publishers&have&the&right&to&communicate&their&work&to&the&
public&by&telecommunication.&
!
In&the&context&of&CCH&it&becomes&interested&to&determine&who&the&
public&is
!
If&fax&is&used&to&send&work&to&single&source&
!
It’s&the&reasoning&there,&logic,&what&ifs
!
Fax&transmission&is&reliant&upon&telecommunication&means&by&which&
the&signals&and&data&being&send&have&the&potential&of&being&
communicated&to&the&public&
!
Hypotheticals&
!
What&court&concluded&the&very&specific&issues&with&CCH&Canadian&
!
Is&streaming&communication&to&the&public?&That’s&where&the&stuff&
becomes&interesting&in&contemporary&context.&
!
What&constitutes&the&public
!
:7;-)2+$&<%=<5=$
!
>#288$"??7",$(para&5)
Sampling&in&pop&music&industry&for&20&years&has&developed&and&relied&upon&
practice&of&sampling&
!
Its&captured&in&the&body&of&legislation&that&are&being&forced&to&grapple&with&on&
the&one&had&creators&and&copyright&holders&rights&and&on&the&other&hand&users&
rights&that&are&interested&in&producing&user&generated&content&for&nonJ
commercial&purposes.
!
As&a&cultural&form&sampling&is&now&recognized&as&an&artistic&practice.
!
One&of&the&objective&of&copyright&act&is&to&balance&rights&of&holders&of&copyrights&
and&protect&their&rights&from&their&works&from&being&ripped&off&from&others.&But&
also&owners&and&users&rights.
!
What&about&the&rights&of&producers&of&content&through&these&cultural&practices?
!
These&are&things&you&see&reflected&in&user&generated&provisions&of&copyright&act&
!
:7;-)2+$4@'4$<%=
!
MCP&question&authorization&was&an&issue&on&appeal&in&this&caseimplication&is&
profound.&
A2+$;2BB7#;)",$087#C*7+7#"-76$;2+-7+-$
!
There&is&this&notion&of&potential&liability&by&providing&means&within&a&household&
in&such&a&way&that&the&means&could&be&used&to&infringe&copyrights&
!
If&I&am&providing&the&means&by&which&a&member&of&the&household&could&then&
infringe&copyright,&via&the&means&I&provided,&am&I&authorizing&it?&E.g.&by&
providing&wiJfi&hotspot.&
!
Issue&of&authorization&on&appeal&take&the&logic&which&was&applied&by&the&
supreme&court&on&the&authorizing&issue&and&read&the&provision&in&the&application&
there.&
!
Within&smart&homes&using&smart&devices&there&is&a&pot