CMN 1148: Lecture 4 Oct 3 2011
Txtbook chapter 7 : “Socialization Processes”
Socialization is a process that may have many ups and downs and sometimes may not seem to follow a
In addition to considering the socialization process over time (the when of socialization), researchers have
also looked at the content of socialization what must be learned in order to adept to the organizational
Rolerelated: information encompasses the information, skills, procedures and rules that an individual must
grasp to perform the job.
Social Influence in Action:
One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group
members to confront the social norms that have been established.
Motives for Social Conformity:
The motives for social conformity vary across situations and can be classified as follows:
Compliance: (involved effect dependence) people follow social rules because they have to
Identification: (involves information dependence) people follow social rule because they want to, people feel
that it is their ethical responsibility, they don’t follow it because they believe it, they follow it because they
Internalization: (involves internal forces) people follow social norms and rules because they should, they
want to help the company.
Assimilation is an ongoing process
is the ongoing behavior and cognitive processes by which individuals join, become integrated into and exit
Assimilation is a dual process of :
Individualization : whether employees are trying to create new rules or values.
Socialization : what the company itself does, interactions (seminars, meetings etc)
Models of Socialization:
Anticipatory socialization: socialization that occurs before entry into the organization. Encompasses both
socialization to an occupation and socialization to an organization. Encounter: Sense making stage that occurs when a new employee enters the organization. The newcomer
must let go of old roles and values in adapting to the expectations of the new organization.
Metamorphosis : The final stage of the socialization process occurs when the new employee has made the
transition from outsider to insider.
Content of socialization and Proactive Socialization:
job change negotiation
involvement in workrelated activities
informal mentor relationships
Communication processes during assimilation:
the employment interview: from the organization’s perspective, the main function of the interview is the
recruiting and screening of potential employees. Three basic functions:
1. An organizational representative, the interviewer is using the interview to recruit potential employees and
make decisions about the quality of the recruit.
2. The applicant is using the interview as a way to find out more about the organization.
3. As a point of first contact, between the organization and the applicant, the interview serves as a
socialization tool that is a way to facilitate the adaptation of the applicant if he/she be hired. most interviewers gather information in relatively structured ways. Indeed, reviews of the research literature
indicate that highly structured interviews are better predictors of future job performance than unstructured
ones. Some structured interviews are highly formulaic (ex: the situational interview, the behavior interview
and the stress interview) whereas others involve a variety of questions and answers arranged in a
structured form. For example, many interviews follow an invertedfunnel approach in which closeended
questions are used at the beginning of the interview followed by openended questions as the interview
newcomer informationseeking tactics
role development processes
organizational exit: like organizational entry, organizational exit is a process, not an event. Individuals often
anticipated their exit from an organization, perhaps for many years (in the case of retirement) or for shorter
time spans (in the case of job transfers). Even layoffs that are seen from the outside as “sudden” are often
anticipated well in advance by organizational insiders.
Overt questions: Newcomer solicits information by asking direct questions of information targets.
Indirect questions: Newcomer solicits information by asking non interrogative questions or by hinting.
Third parties: Newcomer solicits information by asking a secondary source ( ex co worker)
rather than a primary source (ex: supervisor)
Testing limits: Newcomer solicits information by breaking or deviating from organizational rules
and observing reactions
Disguised Newcomer solicits information by disguising the information0seeking attempt as a
conversations natural part of the conversation
Observing Newcomer solicits information by watching behavior in salient situations.
Surveillance Newcomer solicits information by making sense of past observed behavior.
Antipitipator socialization, encounter stage, metamorphosis stage
Reality shock Rolerelated info
Realistic job previews
Newcomer information –seeking
Chapter 8: “Decision Making Processes :
Centralized vs. Decentralized decision making
Wellstructured vs. III structured problems
Perfect vs. Bounded Rationality
One of the most critical activities in any organization is decision making.
It is important to note that, to an ever –increasing extent, organizations no longer see decision making as
an isolated process but rather as an ongoing system that is integrated into structures and behaviors
throughout the organization.
Involves identifying and harnessing intellectual assets to allow organizations to build on past experiences
and create new mechanisms for exchanging and creating knowledge.
Models of the Decisionmaking Process:
In classical theories of organizational behavior, decision making is an entirely rational and logical process.
Stage one (formulation stage): the team might do a survey of organizational members to determine
computing needs and desires.
Stage 2 (concept development stage): the management team would generate alternative ways for dealing
with the problem.
Stage 4( detailing process): subgroups might be assigned to get more detail on the pros and cons or
various options, and their workability might be tested.
Stage 5 (implementation stage): the server system that came out ahead during evaluation would be put in
place by the management group.
Classical Decision making is seen as a rational and logical process. Emphasis is placed on
procedures through which decision makers can reach an optimal solution as
effectively as possible.
Human relations: Participation in the decisionmaking process is seen as an avenue for the satisfaction