CMN 3133: Lecture #5 Sept 19 2013
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. It is a technology, and it seeks to convince others. It disregards normative
concerns. Rhetoric is the social mechanism to entwine emotions with political action.
Rhetoric was born as a distinct autonomous discipline in Ancient Greece. In Athens, concurrent rhetors
presented their political advice to the agora, while seeking to influence public choice.
Revise the most important notions from your readings.
Learn how different democracy is today from the Greek model.
1. Political communications play a crucial role for integrating political decisions and the people: Role of
In a parliamentary system, executive authority originates from the assembly. The precise institutional rule
for determining who shall form a cabinet vary from one parliamentary system to another, but for a system to
be parliamentary, the process of forming a government must fall to the majority party, if there is one. If there
is not, it must derive from bargaining among those politicians with an elective mandate from the most recent
Once formed, the government survives in office only so long as it does not lose the ‘confidence’ of the
Parlimantary system: governing party and the government needs to communicate
In order to maintain ‘confidence’ and support for policy and programs
Representation in Presidental Systems:
In a presidential system, on the other hand, the origin and survival of
executive and legislative authority are separate. The first criterion of the
definition of presidentialism contrasts starkly with that for parliamentarism, in
that it denotes the existence of a chief executive whose authority originates with the electorate.The second criterion specifies that, unlike in a parliamentary
system, the chief executive is not subject to dismissal by a legislative majority.
Furthermore, neither is the assembly subject to early dissolution by the
Institutionalisation of free, fair and regular elections that do not debar anyone from participating. (unless
Representatives are elected, they use their power (given by the people through the vote) on behalf of the
Modern source of power
Democracy and Pluralism:
Ensures that a broad range of people is represented
Both society and state support pluralism of views and access to the media.
Power is dispersed across political groupings with contrasting views
Government is neutral
Levelstiers of political power
National and Local State Differences:
Chamber of representatives
• Prime Minister
• Cabinet government , whose party holds power for lawmaking and is responsible and accountable
to a larger group of representatives
• Executive authority, consisting of a prime minister and cabinet, arises out of the legislative
• The executive is at all times subject to potential dismissal via a vote of ‘no confidence’ by a majority
of the legislative assembly.
Features hierarchical relationship of executive to legislative authority, whereby the
executive arises from and is responsible to the majority of the assembly
• The executive is headed by a popularly elected president who serves as the ‘chief executive’;
• The terms of the chief executive and the legislative assembly are fixed, and not subject to mutual
• The president names a