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CRM1301 (295)
Lecture

Lecture Two - The Demonic Perspective.docx

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRM1301
Professor
Carolyn Gordon
Semester
Winter

Description
Trephining: drilling into the skull in order to release "evil demons" trapped inside Salem, Mass.: Hired a slave from Barbados who told stories to the children in the area. At one point Samuel's daughter and niece acted like they were possessed. The girls said that the salve, Tituba, and two other women who were considered bad in the neighborhood caused them to act like this, deeming them witches. Tituba admitted she was a witch, the other two did not. All three were burned at the stake. Salem Witch Trials - 1692 • Exodus 22:18 - Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live • Many people, and even animals, were executed for being associated with witches or being witches themselves Assumptions of Demonology • Look for the cause and cure of deviant behaviour in the realm of the supernatural • The Inquisition - the tribunal court system used by the Catholic Church in order to find and accuse the heretics • Heretic - anyone who challenges the church, whether it is by sin or non- conforming or by showing disbelief of the bible • Deviance is a sinful act which violates the church • Deviance has cosmic consequences: o Harmful to victims o God o The entire cosmos (all creatures are being affected by deviant behaviour) Two Paths to Demonic Deviance Temptation Model: • Anyone has the choice between good and evil, and you don't need to fall to the temptation but if you do there will be punishment Possession How to Diagnose the Handiwork of the Devil: • Trial by Ordeal o Trial by Heat: forced to carry a hot piece of iron or walk over hot coals, the temperature and weight was dependent on the crime, etc.  If it had begun to heal after 3 days, God had intervened and was curing them, therefore they're innocent. No healing, guilty. o Trial by Water: thrown into cold water while bound by ropes  If you sank, you were innocent and if you floated you were guilty. Why? Floating because witches weren't baptized or because water is pure and being sinners they repel water • The Trials o Accused must testify  Refusal was proof of guilt o Not immediately informed of charges o Anyone could testify against him/her  Was not told who accusers were o No supporters  No legal assistance • 5 types of evidence to convict o Trial by clever test - must say the Lord's Prayer, if there is any slip up or mistake or hesitation then they are guilty o Individual testimony - attribute own bad fortune to the demonic activities of another o Physical marks of the devil - any abnormalities, including moles and birthmarks, are considered marks of the devil o Spectral evidence - testimony that was based on an individuals dream or vision ex: I dream I saw said person as a witch in my dream, therefore they are a witch o Confession of guilt - confession saves the individuals soul, therefore was the main goal of inquisitors, also provided money to witch-hunters if there is proof that the person is a witch Confessions • Bring the accused back to the faith • Forgiveness and/or saving of the soul • Inquisitors better educated than their subjects and trained in questioning • Money-making industry Confessional Devices • Head-crusher - helmet that is put on the head and tightened, crushing the skull as more questions are asked • Inquisitional Chair - chair covered in sharp spikes that pierce the skin, the straps on the chair and tightened and the rods can be heated up in order to illicit a confession • Iron Spider/Cat's Paw - grab fat areas, very painful • Judas' Cradle - triangular spike in which the person is suspended above and dropped down on after each question • Strappado - hung by the hand and pulled up high, then dropped, dislocating the shoulders from their sockets (used with iron spider and cat's paw) • The Rack - all limbs are pulled in different directions, pulled harder with each question that is answered in an unfavorable manner Religious Control - More Shame than Pain • Many punishments were gender specific o Ducking stool - woman were hoisted onto a chair up in the air and brought through the village, then dipped in and out of the water o Hag's Cradle?: mask that was put on a woman with a sharp piece of metal in the mouth that pie
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