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The Penitentiary System Kate's second lecture of Winter Semester 2011: The Penitentiary System. It includes: Prison Models Penitentiary as a Correctional Institution Federal Pens Key points on the Whitmer reading Provincial Prison System Reintegrat

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University of Ottawa
Kate Fletcher

The Penitentiary System Tuesday, January 18, 2011 Pennsylvania style  “penitent” through reflection Solitary confinement: ppl started to go insane Not humane Included jobs they were to do solitarily Awaken morality – “life annihilated and begun again” (239) Radial Prison Design: a “range” (middle area) with cells branching off Very popular in the UK Auburn system: reformation through work Reform ppl through work The work they do in the other model isn’t actually “reforming” type work, it’s minute Labor will give you skills that will lead to later employment Punishment  prison labour  employment If you teach them how to be a good worker it will teach them to be a good citizen when they come out – duplication of society Rehabilitate individ as a social individ “Work becomes the religion” Conflicts Between Models Religious: should a single religion be a main component in your rehabilitation Economic: not feesable to have everyone in solitary confinement What’s the cheapest way to serve and maintain Architetaral/administrative: what’s the best way to survail and govern ppl Medical: ppl started going insane and committing suicide Kingston Pen: Auburn Model with men women and children all together 150 cells, max security facility Men, women, children, housed together “Humane” way to punish and reform Foucault: why we made the move from prison  pen… nothing to do with being more humane etc. Hide power relations involved in punishment  shield public The reaction of the public of distain and hatred to those in power .. much safer if you hide the powers involved behind walls so it’s not in the public Job is to scare the public (see what could happen to them and refrain from doing that) Want to shade public from what they’re complicit in (which is punishing ppl) Allows us to feel better about what’s going on Prison as punishment –-> prison as apparatus (for rehabilitation; the collection of knowledge about an individ – we collect knowledge in prison about you as an offender) Isolation, work, surveillance – model prisoner  Model citizen Model prisoners will inevitably become model citizens Power enacted in pen model (on the mind) is for more expansive Prison becomes apparatus of getting to ppls minds Pen practices (that will allow this to occur): take sentences of judges, prison is going to attempt to make a body of knowledge about the individ and that body is going to allow the pen to modify that person The law is interested in convicted offender and the act Pen is interested in delinquent and biographical knowledge it’s going to gain on you to transform you Offender of law AND an object of study (they want to compile info about you) Black box: cuz it sees scientific, rehabilitative and humane – it’s impossible to critique very heavily, therefore we accept it This is why we can’t wrap our head around the fact that we shouldn’t use them or should use them in very limited ways Self-Evidence of Prison Rehabilitating sick ppl so it makes us feel good; making them more in line with us Egalitarian punishment: depriving everyone of liberty, that’s more egalitarian than fining (cuz if you’re fining wealthy ppl it’s not that big of a punishment) We like that it’s egalitarian Apparatus for transforming individs: render “docile and useful” – captive, don’t need benefits etc. (ex. companies have prisoners answering phones) Whitmer: the reason why we cont to have prison 2 reasons: 1. Illustrates the consequences of resistance: what happens if you resist, you are punished (ex. in schools, factory farms) Prison is potent reminder of what happens when you break these rules 2. Conceal the fact that the social is the carceral: to conceal that our social world, in its entirely, is prison Offering us a symbol (prison) to say that “we’re free” – the prison makes us feel like we are free cuz we’re not in prison Penitentiary as “Correctional Institution” 1940s/50s: post WWII optimism: we’re making money to help rebuild Europe, lots of technological advancement We feel that we are able to use technology and science to fix ppl that are sick/sitches that are dysfunctional Prisoners are clients who are sick (socially or mentally sick), we have skills and knowledge that are going to help enable us to target and fix those problems (rehabilitate) Cuz they’re fixed, we will be able to reintegrate them Treatment model: interventions that will help you fix the fact that you don’t have education etc. Vocational training, therapeutic interventions Federal Penitentiaries What we have now Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) Security levels: Minimum Medium
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