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CRM2307 (108)
Lecture

Week 10.docx

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRM2307
Professor
Christine Bruckert
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 10 Part 4 -Institutionally embedded violence ***1st part of lecture really important for exam*** What are the stereotypes about sex workers Risky (why we can control them) • Dirty • Vectors of disease • Nuisance • Immoral • Home wreckers At risk (why we need to save them/ salvation as regulation) • Victims • Not workers • Require salvation • Histories of sexual abuse, dysfunctional families • Drug addicts • Low self esteem • Controlled by pimps or traffickers What are the implications of the things (we think) we know Hurtful, damaging stigmas. Stays with you. • Interpersonal stigma o "An individual is stigmatized if he presents an attribute that disqualifies him during his interactions with others. This attribution constitutes a deviation from the normative expectations of others about his identidy." Between the normal and the stigmatized. o "The whore stigma is one of the most powerful tools for the social control of women" • Structural stigma o **Strucural stigma occurs when stigmatic assumptions become embedded in social policies and practices. Through the language of risk, particular groups are identified as 'dangerous' (to the health, to moral order, to security etc) which in turn legitimizes myraid forms of surveillance and intervention** o Becomes part of our laws • Denial of agency and delegitimation of claims • Violence Manifestations and effects of interpersonal stigma on the experience of sex workers • Social enviroment o Keep it a secret, make up stories about what your doing • Social services o Denied services unless they give up there work • Health services o Assumption they dont practive safe sex, drugs addicts o Nervous to tell them they are sex workers, dont get the right care from them • Police services o Reading says the police bother her even when they arent working, making sure everyone knows shes a prostitute o Being yelled at, called names by police Police Misconduct Stacey Bonds (not a sex worker) but walking late at night • Strip searched by three male officiers • Physically assaulted • Left in cell naked and soiled for 3 hours • Arrested for public intoxication when according to judge she "was not drunk,not even close" • "an appalling example of abuse of power and misconduct on the part of the police. Its a complete disregard for her dignity. Its a disgrace" Justice Lajoie Manifestations and effects of structural stigma on the experience of sex workers • Law enforcement policy • Laws • Acts like sex workers are not part of the population • Sex workers a nuisance • Them just being there is bothersome • Worry about condoms (only sex workers throw condoms on the floor outside not teens) • Worry about needles • Sex workers congregating • Sex workers prone to victimization, need to help them with these laws • They need "special laws", the are at risk,different • Not based on evidence • Language bad - Streep sweeps • If your car is seen talking to a sex worker you are sent a letter saying they have been spotted and warn them all the bad things that can happen if they see a sex worker like disease • When a police stops you on the street its a form of detention cause you dont have an option to ignore it, he has to have a good reason Whorephobia • Naming the bias • Sex workers are silenced • Sex workers lie - based on something they do • In readings 4th implication is violence • Sex work is dangerous - most dangerous job out there • Must higher risk of fatal incidents • Some sectors more dangerous and some workers at greater risk (street based) • Where they work and how they work • Drug dependant/ misuser o Needs a lot of money o Not every sex worker has the option to do other things o More vulnerable because they are more likely to take risks o Aboriginal most marginilized sector,the most vulnerable (not necessarily drug dependant) Rates of Non-fatal violence • Robbed - 53% • Physically threatened - 73% • Street sex workers 60-112 times more likely to be victims of fatal violence • 45% of homicides unsolved • Increasing rates of violence uncluding fatal violence • OPS have identified a patters in Ottawa(fata violence) Sources of violence • Physical and sexual violence from aggressors (predatory violence) • Physical and sexual violence from clients (situtational violence) • Theft from clients, aggressors and police • Harassment from neighbours and vigilantes • Police violence and misconduct and harassment • Aggressors are those that pose as clients, pretend so they can attack • The client actually goes there with intentions of purchasing sex Myth: sex work is inherently violent - false • Criminal intent violence is not inevitable or a risk of the job - it is result of the context in which workers must operate. Therefore it is preventable. Explaining the violence # 1 criminalization • Pressure from clients o Sex without condom o Acts they dont want to do o Can threaten to call the cops and say they saw drugs so they will do what they want • Limits opportunities to access security of third party controlled establishments o Cant work in own homes o Cant work with other sex workers • Criminal record o Less options when they leave industry o Can trap them in the industry After the communicated law comes into force the rates of fatal incidents shoots up. More vulnerable. #2 enforcement practices • Conditions labour practices • Street workers o Relocated to dark areas o Do not work in teams o Do not take time to assess clients  Dont take time to make sure theres a handle on the passenger door  That no one is in the back o Can not communicate/ clarify with clients  Angry because they think they are paying for something and the think something else # 3 Police Inaction • Police failure to afford violence against sex workers the same consideration as non-sex workers • Do not respond to sex violence agaisnt sex workers • Lance Dove (one example) o 1999- raped and battered sex worker o Got his license number, gave describtion of home, picked him out of a line up, had good evidence against him o He killed Kimberly Tracy, beat her, raped her o Parents argued that if they police had been more active in the sex worker case there daughter would not have been killed • 'just a whore' mentality • Inaction = lack of protection o Can not call the police o Targeted by aggressors o Limits options in cases of domestic violence  Instead of treating it as abused women, they treat it as they have a pimp, they out her, cant call police unless your ready to tell everyone what you do o "i thought i could kill as many of them as I wanted without getting caught" Gary Ridgeway  Green River Killer - Seattle  Killed 23-24 Access to justice? Sandi Marriner's model • Know a crime has been committed • The system believes in you
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