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CRM2307- Women in Canada.docx

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University of Ottawa
Christine Bruckert

Lecture 4 January-22-13 11:29 AM Outline Concepts: •Power/Constraint •Resistance •Choice Women in Canada •Acknowledging difference •Death of the sisterhood •Intersections of privilege and disadvantage -race -class -sexual orientation Taking it apart •Aboriginal women, violence, power and resistance Women's Socio-economic location Income •Earn 75% of male wage •41% of women in non standard labour arrangements Poverty •19% of Canadian women live in poverty Labour Force Location •70% of women in teaching, health, clerical, sales, and service Political •24.6% of federal politicians •rate 44th in the world Social Roles • continued gendered expectations of unpaid labour in home •assume greater responsibility for home and child care/elder care Beauty Imperative •Social costs •Financial costs •Personal costs -Women collectively have less capital •Constraints and privileges -political capital -economic capital -social capital -personal capital + Ideological (social knowledge) • Assumed ways of being women (women are more caring and nurturing for ex.) • -Conditions of possibility- determines what is possible • What is doable • What is thinkable -Women break through the bounds but it is a challenge, it's not easy to challenge these scripts; there are constraints • Challenge the idea of the neo-liberal assumptions like that I deserve this because I made good choices -this idea ignores the constraints put on people Power and Resistance -"Where there is power there is resistance" • Michel Foucault -See power through resistance- acts of resistance renders power visible • Ex. Idle No More movement. The acts of violence against Aboriginal people was known but it's made visible by the Idle No More movement Resistance Definition: The tactics, strategies and practices persons employ to assert agency and contest the conditions and/or implications of their position • women are victimized not victims (it's a master status and is incredibly disempowering) Theoretical roots • Foucault's power as a relationally- realized negotiated dynamic Study of • Peoples struggles to further their interests and exercise agency within the context of the oppression and lack of choice that characterizes their situation Axis of Resistance: • Individual/collective • Passive/violent • Everyday/exceptional -we are not just cultural and social dups -individual is something you do for yourself but it can have ripple effects • Collective acts like the women's movement, in which you have smaller individual acts -doesn't have to be aggressive like blocking a street or something, it can be passive, it can be violent (to the self, to others), it can mean changing legislation -It can be everyday or it can be exceptional • If you see someone's hairy legs it reminds you of the normative script in society -you can be victimized without being a victim Limits of Resistance • Not all acts are resistance (intent, meaning, subjectivity) -some people might not shave their legs because they're lazy • Capacity to resist shaped by gender however not all women are equally positioned -you can go to university as a form of resistance but for women who do not have the economic or cultural capital, that isn't even an option • Strategies of resistance conditioned by social, political, economic capital (what is doable and what is thinkable) Appreciate that: 1. Violence that is not just interpersonal 2. Violence is determined by factors other then just gender • It can be the state, men, women, the economy etc. clearly not JUST men From Sisterhood to Intersectionality -early first wave feminisms were racist • Argued that they should get the vote instead of black people (argued against the black vote to push their own argument) -Particularly in the States -early second wave feminists weren't as explicit • It was exclusionary though • It was based on a white, middle class, elitist woman's experiences which became normative and everything else became otherized -as a result it rendered the experiences of racialized, working class, homosexual etc. women invisible and renders the privilege of the above invisible as well • It was not the only feminism though, women like Angela Davis have been writing for years, particularly black feminists -more reflective of the nuances of privilege and disadvantage Intersections and Layers Intersectionality: how diverse biological, social and cultural categories including gender, race, class, ability, sexual orientation and other axes interact and contribute to systematic social inequity • Oppressions within society- such as racism, sexism, homophobia and religion - do not act independ
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