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CRM3312 (86)
Lecture

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRM3312
Professor
Kenneth Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
(Continuing from previous lecture) Legal Framework: JDA • “best interests” of the child were paramount  o Welfare and rehabilitation • As a result, lengthy incarnation (till 21 years) for minor offences – indeterminate sentences • Number of abuses occurred over years • Growing reform movement (60s) recognized youths rights • Questions of efficacy of intervention Legal Framework: YOA • Declaration of principle – balanced differing philosophies: o Crime prevention o Societal protection o Special needs and circumstances o Rehabilitation o Limited accountability o Youth rights under the law • How it affected sentencing: o Large numbers of youth incarcerated following implementation o Introduced determinant sentencing o Consent to treatment order – allowed youth, sentenced to psychiatric treatment, the right to  consent or not o Repealed in 1995 amendments  Aren’t in the best position to realize they need the help • Custody: o Two levels of custody: open and secure (judge decides which one) o Provincial director decides where the youth serves sentence, based on:  Needs of youth   Length of sentence  Availability of specific services o Judicial expectation that open custody is more rehabilitative, closed custody is considered  more of a punishment Legal framework: YCJA preamble and sentencing • Emphasizes rehabilitation (less than YOA) • Overriding concern is proportionality • Section on sentencing (new) – introduces principles and purpose of sentencing o Should not be harsher than adult, not be a substitute for welfare o Should be the one that is more likely to rehabilitate o Must be least restrictive considering:  Seriousness of offence  Safety of youth and society  Circumstances of the youth  Matching program to youth needs and likelihood of escape Criticisms regarding intervention • Efficacy: are the programs having an effect? o Hard to measure o If you are just looking at recidivism than no • Some youth are isolated and cannot access services • Presumption that youth will be receptive and benefit from programs o How do we know that? o A person has to be in a place in their lives where they are open to change – same for kids 
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