GEO 1111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Evapotranspiration, Radiative Forcing, Cloud Condensation Nuclei

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GEO 1111 Full Course Notes
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GEO 1111 Full Course Notes
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Clouds form when water vapour (gas) condenses to form liquid (cloud) droplets. Condensation needs a nongaseous solid or liquid particles. Charged particles (cosmic rays etc) ionized atoms. Ions that are formed act as a condensation nuclei. Simulate cloud formation in a cloud chamber with a saturated alcohol atmosphere. Amount of energy used by living organisms is relatively small. Vegetation traps surface moisture which increases temperature. Through transpiration, vegetation also emits water vapour in atmosphere. Some marine organisms extract co2 from seawater, make shell and store this greenhouse gas in the lithosphere. Water vapour has a short residence time in the atmosphere. As temperature increase evaporation and evapotranspiration increases. The atmosphere holds more moisture at warmer temperatures. Climatic response depends on rate of change of climate forcing vs the response time of the climate system. Forcing commonly cyclic climate system trying to reach equilibrium with a moving target.

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