GEO 1111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Drainage Divide, Evapotranspiration, Olivine

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14 Aug 2016
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Review of last lecture
Geology of Niagara Escarpment : very vertical cliff
oMineral stability : the mineral formed first during Bowen’s reaction
series will be less stable (the environment on Earth was not the
same as present)
Halite, calcite and olivine are unstable
Quartz and iron oxide are very stable
Clay mineral formation:
oFeldspar + acid + water = clay + potassium + soluble silica
oMost abundant product of weathering
oCarried away by rain and river waters to become soil nutrients
Water, Hydrology, Streams and Rivers
Hydrologic Cycle
It’s the movement of water between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and
lithosphere
Processes :
Evaporation
Precipitation
Infiltration
Evapotranspiration
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Annual Water Balance
Stream runoff = input – losses
oInput : rain and snow (precipitation – evaporation)x catchment
area
oLosses : evapotranspiration
Storage : plants and soil can store water
Unit runoff concept (mm per year)
Ottawa :
oInput 800 mm per year
oEvapotranspiration 350 mm per year
oRunoff 450 mm per year
Steady state : inputs and outputs are equal (no change in reservoir size)
Residence time = volume / flux per time (input)
Ex : V = 106m3
Input = 2*106m3a-1
Residence time = 0.5 years (in half a year, the lake would drain)
Residence time is important :
oTo help with droughts
oMudslides
oPredict flooding
oFor hydroelectric dam
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