GEO 1111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Ocean Pacific, Photic Zone, Radiant Energy

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14 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Oceans
Important
Midterm 1 – 20%
Midterm 2 – 20%
Midterm 3 – 20%
Final exam – 40% (50% new material + 50% cumulative material)
Outline
1. Ocean Geographic Distribution
2. Ocean Water
oWet and salty
3. Waves
oCoastlines and storms
oSurface waves caused by wind
oInteractions with shoreline
Ocean Water
Oceans: 97% of Earth's water
Seawater covers 71% of Earth's surface in three huge interconnected
basins:
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a. the Pacific Ocean
b. the Atlantic Ocean
c. the Indian Ocean
Why are oceans so important?
They support marine life and ecosystems
Production of water through cyanobacteria, etc
They cause natural disasters
Source of renewable energy
Area of the Ocean
Pacific Ocean + Atlantic Ocean + Indian Ocean = World Ocean
The Ocean is so unknown because the Sun cannot penetrate the deep
depths of water
oso many places in the ocean that we haven’t explored
Land masses and Oceans
In the Northern Hemisphere, landmasses dominate
In the Southern Hemisphere, oceans dominate
Properties of water
High heat capacity
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oThe heat capacity prevent extreme temperatures; heat transfer by
currents is large
High latent heat
oLatent heat acts as a thermostat; important in transferring heat and
water to atmosphere
High surface tension
oSurface tension controls drop formation and such surface
phenomena as capillary waves
Water is the universal solvent
High transparency
oTransparency is the absorption of infrared and ultra-violent radiant
energy is large; absorption is visible-light radiant energy is small,
making water “colourless”
Consequence : water is an excellent heat distributor – moderates Earth's
climate
oMelting or freezing takes 355 kJ/kg
Heat energy taken from environment
oEvaporation or condensation takes 2257 kJ/kg
Heat energy released to environment
Consequence of water
Consequence of water's high heat capacity
oRange of ocean T << land T
oOn land temperature range = 146ºC
Highest = 58ºC
Lowest = -88ºC
oSea-surface temperature range = only 38ºC
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