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Melissa Brasgold

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GRT2100 NotesClass 1 course introClass 2 September 6 2013Psychosocial factors memory personality and friendships and recreation and leisure activitiesOntogenic modelsOntogenic models ontogenic refers to internal development forces biological in nature are typically responsible for the changes that occur in adulthoodstages with set characteristicsuniversalsequential follow a definite orderirreversible each stage represents a challenge and once you achieve it you move on cannot go backmost famous model is Ericksons psychosocial theory8 development stagesrange from infancy to late adulthoodwithin each stage the person faces a psychosocial crisisphysiological component as well as demands put on the individual by society and other people social componentyou progress to the next stage once you pass the challengetheory is based on the Epigenetic Principle the person must resolve the crisis within each stage in order to move on If you dont surpass the challenge then you will struggle with the crisis throughout your life and wont move on to the next stageErickson believed his theory met the criteria for ontogenic modelWhat is the flaw in this modelpeople may experience different stages at different times than Erickson outlined some people dont progress as quickly as others etcEricksons Stage 8Psychosocial crisis integrity vs despairthe persons ego must obtain integrity or honour in order to successfully pass this stage goal to be fulfilled and develop a sense of unity with yourself and those around youto do this you must be introspectivereview your life reflect on accomplishments deal with loss and prepare for deathif you accept your life both positive and negative components of your life then you will obtain integrity and contentmentthose focusing on the negative may feel unhappy leaving the ego in a state of despaira major task is to redirect energy into new and appropriate roles rather than trying to change or accomplish things you cannot respect limitationsClass 3 September 11 2013Sociogenic Modelsmore modern classic modelcame about because ontogenic models were criticized for focusing too much on biologythese models have societal elements to themontogenic models ignore differences in life course cohort historical period etcsociogenic models says social factors affect how we changenature vs nurtureallows for external influences like gender SES historical context etcthey all influence a persons developmenta persons life course can be explained most specifically by the timing that they obtain certain social roles eg when you become a parenttransitions follow social normseg having a baby in your 20s and 30snow going well into 30s and 40s on timeif you dont follow the social norms these are consider off time eg having baby in teenage years and more difficultits flexible in that it considers other things in affecting developmentvs ontogenic rigid stages in a specific order that everyone goes throughsociogenic is more fluidtransitions shaped by society are the keythe main point of sociogenic models change in adulthood results from role transitions that are shaped by society rather than internal psychologicalbiological processes ontogenic theoriesCurrent Theoriestake a middle ground approach and look at the different aspects integrate effects of biological psychological and sociohistorical influences on adult developmentemphasize more contextpeople have agencypower and choice ability to make choices to influence a situation 3 types of modelslife course theory modelgoaloriented modelconscious development model Life course theoriesinfluence of cohort and history on life coursedevelopment is a series of transitions that are influenced by both immediate social context whats happening now and the larger historical contextgender and social roles are also considered eg the great depression influenced the life course of individuals depending on their social staturemiddle class children who were economically deprived did better than their nondeprived peers Why Because of the historical periodbeing upper class at that time meant that you didnt do much for yourself and others took care of you whereas middle class could fend for themselvesHow people weather these kind of conditions is a function of individual choice and immediate social context depends on availability of resources and larger historical events at hand Goaloriented modelsBaltes Life Span approach is an examplefocused on balance of gains and losses In early life you have more gains and more losses in later life These are determinants of developmentLife spangoaloriented model is unstagedcontains processesSOC model you successfully grow or age by doing 3 things selecting optimizing and compensating gains and losses apply here toomost OAs have fewer resources as they get older so they must select certain goalswhen youre younger you have more optionsOAs select goals and activities they wish to pursue they optimize their performance by devoting all their resources to those particular pursuits and they compensate for certain losses eg OAs select to drive during the day rather than at night because of decline in vision they are optimizing by driving only in the day and compensating for losses in doing so Selecting to take the bus instead would also apply once they are no longer able to driveSelf development modelgoals change throughout a persons lifeyou want to be the best at whatever it is youre doingideal selfwhatever is the ideal selfis culturally determined Early adulthood the goal is to achieve the ideal selfLater life the goal is to maintain and achieve successful ageing preserve resources counteract lossestry to maintain as much of the ideal self as possibledevelopment consists of self directed development in the pursuit of goals ideal self then maintenancethe person is making the ultimate choice but there are still outside influences the person has agency in pursuit of goalsConscious Developmentadult development is something individuals do and revolves around increasing mindfulnessmindfulnessthe continuous creation of new categoriesopenness to informationimplicit awareness of more than one perspectivebasically if you are mindful then you will open to new thingswe place thingspeople into categories eg animalscat vs dogthe ability not to lump things into one category eg all animals are dogsrealizing that there are other views on things not just your ownmindlessnesssomeone not developing wellbeing trapped in old categories automatic behaviour and not open to learning anything new awareness of only one single perspective eg sees a cat as a dog stays away from dogs because all dogs biteA process of conscious attempts to increases awareness and more flexible wayswanting to learn Liberation modeladult development occurs because of increasing freedom from social and biological
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