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The Counter Reformation and Wars of Religion.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS1120
Professor
Hernan Tesler- Mabe
Semester
Fall

Description
The Counter Reformation and Wars of Religion, to 1648 Introduction The Catholic Church fought back Causus belli: excuse to go to war Conflict; not only spiritual or religious conflict; strongly political Went to war to regain influence 1520s: Charles V was opposed to Lutheran church Luther had sided with the nobles in the peasants war and gains noble support 1531: Lutheran Princes have had enough of Charles V CV: says that Lutheran church doesn’t exist and disses their existence Formed the “Schmalkaldic League” in 1531 Agreement amongst princes that if CV would go against them, they would stick together and take CV down Also to help gain more power from the HRE 1546-7: Charles V goes to war against the princes (short war) Charles V: wins the conflict 1548: as a result, CV tries to force the Lutherans back into the Catholic Church 1548-52; tries to reassert Catholic authority among German speaking, Lutheran areas This leads to open revolt in the HRE; a new level of conflict and open revolution aar(as a result); the hrm (Holy roman emperor) try to compromise Form the peace ofAugsburg (1555) Cuius region, eius religio-whose realm, his religion (Whoever owned the land chose the religion) Pope would like to re-convert; Cath. Church realizes that Protestantism cannot be stopped/cannot move back in time. (Permanent) End of religious unity in Western Europe. The idea that religion was territorial, and that it corresponded to the State Counter Reformation –what? When? Why? AKA: the Catholic Revival Why? To combat Protestantism; to reform the catholic church, to better address the spiritual needs ot believers (to revitalize the catholic church) An attempt to enforce Catholicism as a normative pattern of thought “Conversos” that had lived in Siberia, converted to Catholics, but were doing things that weren’t catholic (kept Jewish tradition) The Spanish Inquisition: 1480: created by Ferdinand ofAragon and Isabella of Castile ---To rule out Muslims and Jews that remained in catholic territory Used a number of different tactics to deal with the heretics Torture used Key focuses of the Counter Reformation: The Council of Trent (1545-63); a number of sessions convened that consisted of bishops, archbishops, cardinals (principally Italian and Spanish lands) 1) The council reaffirms catholic dogma including confession, purgatory, saints, the celibacy of priests, the uquarist symbolically represents Christ’s body and blood. nd (Luther; priests could marry ;) 22 council begin a discussion of music. Secular music should be removed. Only religious music or themes could be played in a church. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestina LEGEND that he wrote a piece that convinced the council to allow secular music. 2) Council also condemns Protestantism as heresy and says that the protestant church’s rejection of works to achieve salvation is wrong. 3) The focus of the Council of Trent is reform within the catholic including; strengthening the educational training of priests, strengthening catholic discipline and morality (sanctioning against alcohol, the consorting with concubines, expanding education and knowledge amongst Catholic believers (i.e. publishing doctrinal manuals, spreading anti- protestant literature.) 4) The founding of new religious borders. (most famous is the Jesuit border) Created by Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) when he dies there are over 1000 members of the Jesuit Order (Over SouthAmerica, NorthAmerica,Africa,Asia, etc.) Jesuits founded colleges in Europe 5) Missionary zeal: very important. Catholics went aboard ships to find people who haven’t found god yet. Wars of Religion: General Contours: The first period of conflict roughly 1500-1559 Not necessarily a conflict over religion… At the end; Europe couldn’t do it anymore. To the extent that certain territories have no more population. Conflict begins over temporal power (on earth) Between the Hapsburgs and the Valois Hapsburgs; ruling Spain; Valois; ruling France Begin to fight over control for large parts of Europe; evolves into “the Great Italian Wars”; ends in 1559 The battles are also involved with another number of rulers across Europe. Lutheran Princes; start to try in hopes of gaining more territory The papacy gets involved as well to maintain as much control of Italian possession as possible Ottoman Turks; try to extend their dominion in Europe Charles V: responsible for defending Europe against the Turks (Armies of Turks extended as far as Vienna.) 1530s, Valois King allies himself with the ottoman Turks (Charles V; a Hapsburg) FAILS Phillip II Born: 1527-98 (1556-1598) ruling Rules the Kingdom of Spain and the Netherlands and the New world Spain: the richest country from the gold in theAmericas Phillip: wants Catholic unity in Europe Seeks to destroy Protestantism and Muslim faith (double cousin) Princess Maria of Portugal (1516-58), dies in childbirth Queen Mary I of England (1516-58), dies Elisabeth of Valois (1545-68), miscarriage leads to death Anna of Austria (1549-80), dies in childbirth Phillip II: uses these marriages to involve himself in other countries Pope is at war with the HRe Does not want Protestantism to spread Becomes king of Portugal later on Is offered the English crown by Mary Stuart (Queen of Scots) Mary S; Catholic and wants Catholicism to spread England discovers this and is beheaded by E I Philip II is angry and sends the SpanishArmada and fails miserably Never achieves control of England Has extensive holds in America and the Philippines (Philip) Loses control of the Netherlands 1576; Prince William I of Orange leads 7 protestant provinces of the Netherlands in a military alliance against Philip II and succeeds William: assassinated in 1584 by a Catholic Netherlands never return to Spanish control Spain does not acknowledge independence until much later What becomes the Dutch republic is a very liberal part of Europe People can practice religion very openly Jews; set up in the Netherlands and openly practice Judaism Tolerance helps the N to become a cosmopolitan and a centre of independence in Europe. 1560; 1648 almost 90 years of continuous warfare The Rising of Religious Violence By 1555, Protestantism is spreading through France (Calvinism) In France; called Huguenots (Huis Genooten; house mates) By the end of the 1560s; one third of all French nobles are Protestant Number of incidences that accelerate the spread of Calvinism Catholics and Huguenots fight for territory Destroy each other’s parishes, priests, etc. 1572 August; Catherine de Medici arranges for daughter Marguerite de Valois to marry Henry de Navarre (Huguenot); very odd; to marginalize another family that is tryi
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