Sept 16 Lecture
Expansion and Regional Conflict
1896 conservatives kicked out by Laurier (Liberal)
How did the British Empire both strengthen and weaken Canada?
Militarily; had no navy of it’s own. W/O GB navy, would be no control
MacDonald’s success brings in enemies
BNA (s.93) protected minority school rights –if they existed prior to Confederation
Dominion had power of reservation & disallowance (s.90)
BNA act protects Protestants in Quebec and Catholics in Ontario
School rights for minorities are written in by law
What happened if a minority had rights in another province?
Confed. brought about by minority of men
No delegates representing:
Cape Breton Island
Irish Catholics from NB
Rouge from Quebec
First Nations; had supported the crown, but prestige had fallen. (Dominion authorities
became arrogant; TF no consideration for FN)
Very beginning: protection for groups.
Because large min. existed from the beginning; there have been group rights.
(British law had always recogn. individuals) New Brunswick Catholics/ Common Schools Act
ON and QU schools had status in the law
NB did not.
Existed by custom (created through parishes and families)
Ideology of progressive education in Prot. Communities (majority everywhere besides
Believed in state enforced public education
Catholics; didn’t buy into this.
Extinguish Catholic schools unless they accepted the books from the province
Were told they must pay taxes
MPs in Ottawa start to get worried
Bishop said they didn’t have to pay taxes
Sec. 93 said to only apply to ON and QU.
Appealed to Ottawa; Ottawa sided with Province.
1871: 160 schools in Saint John alone.
Catholics refuse to pay taxes; their property starts to be taken away
At least one parishioner was arrested
Final court of appeal: in House of Lords
Est. since early 1600s
Expulsion in 7 years war (17551760s)
Parish schools independent of the gov’t
Anticonfed. and cab. Minister
Powerful figure in Gloucester County, NB
Caraquet (town in Gloucester county)
3,000 Catholics Young wishes to enforce his “common schools act” in caraquet.
The Caraquet riot
Catholics elected their parish officials
People who voted had not paid their taxes
Young decides their votes TF does not matter
Young called secret meeting
Jan 26 1875