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HIS3315 (1)


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University of Ottawa
John Robson

HIS3315A Terms: Jeannette Rankin, Lumpers and Splitters, Ideas or Interests, Human Nature, Battle of Hastings, Winston Churchill - What people think or material interests? - How great events occur? Interest or driven by ideas? - Human nature: unchanging human nature, is that possible? - Is history inevitable? How much does the people and the ideas matter? Terms: Albion’s Seed, Common Law, Russo-Japanese War, Ivan III, Peter the Great, Crimean War Alfred the great - Albion is an old word used for Britain - “USA is fundamentally a UK settlement” US shaped by six founding groups - Aboriginals and African Slaves - Paradox of American Slavery and American Liberty - The settlement of puritans in the north, with the settlement of cavaliers of the south - The contrast of the cultures - The Quakers: poor, “de-alcoholised Vikings, pacifist” - The first abolitionist “if I don’t want to be slaves, why should I make someone else is?” - American sense of liberty looks backwards, from the magna carta - Quote on taxation with representation is a quote of old Latin text - What they think they fought for at the revolution - Common law – came from the people, coming from medieval England, petitions from the people, legislation - American constitution tries to formalize all of this  slavery makes this a failure - Racial justice was difficult to raise unless you are the hard left Russia – Cursed Geography - Viking settlements, Kiev and Rus - Russian alphabet not based on Latin - Russia isolated by alphabet and religion and the Mongols - Russia committed to orthodox Christian based Christianity from Byzantium - Mongol control, learn of the anti-Alfred, capitulate to the monarch - Ivan III: the great, overthrows the Mongols, destroys the free cities of Russia, Novgorod, expands - Ivan IV, the terrible - Russian church dominated by state - Russia creates a very binding form of serfdom  no law, thus don’t know how its accomplished - All the while serfdom dying in Europe - For Russian, anarchy and terrible things Peter the great: bursts of religious piety, and drunkenness - Realizes Russia has a disadvantage compared to European neighbours - Peter travels to Europe incognito, works in a shipyard, carpenter - A great contrast in the power of the monarch - Western cities exist spontaneously, Russian artificially makes them, “Russia is not part of the west” - Crimean war – Russia loses badly - Russian serfs are emancipated before American slaves were freed - Russia became anti-sematic, the Jews immigrate to the U.S - No development of aristocracy, representative institutions , due process, the result is a society with an overpowering monarch - “Russia in a colossus with a feet of clay” Terms: what is to be done, constituent assembly, cheka, Brest-Litovsk, war communism, kronstadt rebellion When cold war started? 1917? Possible? Cold war has some antecedence, hostilities build into communist side? Does it start during Tocqueville’s time? Whose fault is it? Power in some sense through 1991 for the soviets Bolshevik revolution didn’t cause cold war? Is foreign policy reflective of USSR domestic goals? Do ideas matter? Ideas based on circumstance? Bolsheviks were modernizers, ideas, and an attractive way West perceived as deprived societies Military supremacy  economic dynamism  cultural dynamism Russia consumes its society to modernize, makes its society weak Was Russian society Russian or Marxist? What if it were German? Russian society buckled in WWI What happened? Revolution: change in form of government, social class, Cheka – the secret police, existence secret for 10 years, 1000 killed a month for political reasons Civil war ends, 1921, Poland attacked, attack fails 1921: country short 30 million people War communism- nationalization of heavy industry and banks, every workshop with 210 workers seize grain from peasants for it In terms of economics, the Bolsheviks are extremist’s  crisis passes after 1920’s Early 1921 conference  secret resolution, central committee able to eliminate aspects of party guilty of “factionalism” Kronstadt rebellion  the sailors are a potent force  they revolt during the 1921 conference violently, Bolsheviks attacked them, significant casualties Lenin death 1924, who should take over? Someone to take them to the new world? “All Marxists are dreamers” “Imperialism” – the highest stage of capitalism”  imperialism used to bribe the workers at home, thus no revolution That’s why it’s okay to take backwards Russia, Lenin famous testament, looking at a program to advance What are the alternatives to Stalin? What do others think? Is Stalin a Marxist-Leninist? Terms: NEP, Socialism in one country, Leon Trotsky, nikolai Bukharin, kulaks, rabfaks Stalin “engineer of human souls” New economic policy – some normalization, socialize gov’t Lenin calls this a strategic/tactical retreat; Bolshevik cannot yet control the peasants Stalin writes a book, Stalin trusted his own common spies, and Stalin does not tolerate Stalinism What do we do? No global revolution? Give history another shove? Stalin “modernize” develop class consciousness, peasants into skilled labour? Make it go fater Securing Stalin as a major theorist, Stalin never was “head of state” an insistence on party unity Evil =/= stupid, don’t deny evil if you have seen it Can’t explain Stalin’s rise to power because of being a psychopath Stalin wins the debate because he can industrialize - Building an industrial region outside of Europe’s reach - Kulaks – rich peasants - Collectivization starts in 1928-1929 - Ukrainians were not targeted ethnically, just their culture made them vulnerable - This was part of Stalin’s plan, 5 year plans to create heavy industry Rabfaks – rough and ready technical schools attached to factories, with a political component - Creates a generation like Lenoid Brezhnev, these people put into managerial positions The USSR is a different place in 1939, young people are not aware of the tragedies of this policy Trotsky didn’t do the paper work “an overgrown grad student” Peter the great “use the west, and then turn our backs to it” Nikolai Bukharin – could he have delivered industrialization with a human face? - Believed in ruthless to a point - Perhaps could not simply oppose the party at the end - Still viewed as a counter revolutionary however What is the Bolshevik program? Class war –proletariat vs. bourgeoisie and kulaks Did something go wrong? Bolshevik state, Stalin’s triumph, with catastrophic famine, genocide, state capitalism, ability to beat Nazi Germany, a modernizing ideological regime, the meaning of the Russian revolution Terms: Article X, Dawes Plan, Scholarships not Battleships, Quarantine the aggressor, America first, Rattlesnakes of the Atlantic 189 US-Spanish War  expansion into the Philippines guerrilla war The Price of Empire, US assertion into international politics Annex Philippines, Major control of Cuba McKinley  Theodore Roosevelt (Real politk, speak softly, carry big stick) Monroe Doctrine – Foreign policy in terms of power/national interest- realizable ideals Panama Canal, balance of power in the pacific Woodrow Wilson: effort to change the Mexican government, port of Veracruz WWI disaster to western civilization? Not just economic/moral - European ideals worth what? Economic might into industrial size killing Article X of League of Nations  league determines use of force, Wilson would not accept this Interaction with League of Nations, Washington Naval treaty Dawes Plan: plan to deal with lack of debt, payment from European nations  Implemented and helped, Kellogg-Briand Pact Scholarships not Battleships: motto, peace movement, national referendum on declaration of war – constitutional amendment Ludlow Banning shipments to belligerents, the neutrality act (civil wars exempted) “Quarantine the Aggressor”  speech in Chicago, to deal with treaty violations, some negative feedback “No merchants of death”, usage of the term “aggressor” “WWII arrived on schedule?” prepare the nation? Neutrality Act, arms embargo repealed… Finland attacked by USSR, Finland only nation to repay war debts on time America First committee  dependency on oceans for defense, disbands after Pearl Harbour First peace time draft, Lend-Lease “Rattlesnakes of the Atlantic”  Roosevelt calling German U-Boats, trying to find a decent caucus belli to fight Germany “opposite aggression” Lenin “peace only after all bourgeois in world destroyed” Terms: Social Fascism, Manchuria, Maksim Litvinov, Great Purge, Nazi-Soviet Pact, Winter War Not unreasonable to believe USSR was suspicious of US and vice versa - USSR perhaps trying to protect socialism domestically and keep capitalism out - National Socialism(Fascism) included with capitalism “Main enemy on the left” “make alliances with progressives” - United front from above, when threats from capitalists is perceived - United front from below, when stealing members Social Fascism – social democrats  left wing socialist party that are not Stalinist ^ A soviet label Attack on Manchuria – Soviet look for non-aggression pacts, joins League of Nations in 1934 Alliances with other leftist parties: popular front USSR wouldn’t cooperate with the west, but west didn’t do anything, it was hopeless USSR concluded in 1939, and things were going no where Maksim Litvinov – former foreign minister Molotov- Ribbentrop pact. Did Stalin trust Hitler? Perhaps? Doubtful The great purge  not the peasants, just the bourgeois  prevent them from being traitorous Winter war went badly, but practice for Germany Trading territory for time, the second 5 year plan, delivery of heavy military equipment Huge demographic deficit. USSR only 26% urban Increase in University admittance Why Stalin purged? Investing in factories, cars, could you modernize just as fast? Soviets believed they pulled off a miracle, due to the experience of the 30’s, soviets perhaps prone to go to conflict with west afterwards Terms: Midway, Rosie the Riveter, United Nations, Lend-Lease, Current tax payment act, Bretton Woods - Religious institutions in the west - Capacity of spontaneous organization to pursue a goal - What happens when the adversary is ready and you’re not? Canadian Merchant Navy suffered critical casualties during WWII An experience for the young generation? Battle of El-alimen, Midway, and Stalingrad all turning points - All victories with junior officers making independent decisions, western enemies cannot match this independence - Economic production  American supremacy  capitalism winning Rosie the Riveter – symbol of social progress  status, money, freedom, impact on future, large black urban communities, with professionals due to war work  beginnings of the civil rights movements, confidence and education required, not all of this was smooth sailing The winning of hearts and minds started in WWII (the idea of it) Western confidence returned 4 Freedoms speech, how to deal with soviet after war The United Nations Terms: Marshall Tukhachevski, Leningrad, Stalingrad, Vyacheslav Molotov, second front, Yalta - Some relief of lesser threat from NKVD after Nazi invasion - Tukhachevski purged after soviet defense failure Siege of Leningrad Molotov – travels to get a deal in the west  3 things: war material, recognize our territorial claims, second front in Europe - Territorial demands were not acceptable - Second front slow in coming - Soviet demands in lend lease became increasingly unreasonable Roosevelt fireside chat  health problems Yalta conference - Declaration of a liberal and free Europe, under Atlantic charter, but no enforcement - American and British relations improve dramatically Russians think they won war single handily, WWII validates for many the existence of the USSR, creates a kind of legitimacy Nagasaki, The Baruch Plan, Lublin Poles, The Iron curtain, The Long Telegram, Henry Wallace - Some believed in good relations with the USSR - 1/5 distrusted the soviets, 1/3 optimistic - The rest were non-aligned Revision School: US monopoly on nuclear weapons  Nagasaki, further evolution… geo-political conflict zero-sum game First phase: establishment of soviet sphere of influence Second Phase: Soviet attempt to expand their influence Cold War - A relatively peaceful existence - Primarily between a contrast between communists and ex. Communists - After 47, 2 sides engage in contest in cold war context - Roosevelt thought he could maintain relations with USSR with it being admitted to UN - Truman is an “everyman” - Henry Wallace: left wing politician, shadow of the cold war, Potsdam conference - Where to use atomic bomb? Nagasaki, Hiroshima  US does not proceed to stockpile nuclear weapons after initial bombings The Baruch Plan  plan to renounce the atomic weaponization, power - Control of the raw materials manufacturing and weapons - The difficulties, how to enforce it? Disagreements arise over European borders US demobilizes, so does the soviets, Stalin calls for additional 5 year plans to ensure USSR survival in all future wars, is this the declaration of the cold war? The long telegram – “impossible to have relations with soviets” “containment (inferred) is needed, “Calm mobilization needed” “keep soviets bottled up until internal change, makes soviets less dangerous” Public Alternative  Henry Wallace objects to this get through policy Long telegram – identifies the problem, gives a solution (also at the right time) Iron curtain – Churchill speech, warming on future soviet threats, influenced areas Pattern: disintegrations of relations  hostility towards the west due to un-changeable circumstances Fascism, the true believer, mass man, propaganda, newspeak, doublethink Totalitarianism – categorization of Stalinism  how did the enlightenment lead to this?  USSR seemingly lose some aspects of totalitarianism after Stalin’s death Nazi and Bolshevik cults? Benito Mussolini uses totalitarianism first… Fascism – “is totalitarian” according to Mussolini, nothing outside the state  his version was feeble The true believer – Book, the people that join totalitarian parties - The atomized mass man, ruthless acutely robotic  the origin of totalitarianism Mass man  someone who is lost, without order, longing for belonging and acceptance. Party line  submission to it means abandoning attachment regardless of the illogical notion of the party line Propaganda – taking on a notion is that hypnotic and insightful, the way you absorb info traumatically affects what you absorb Totalitarianism: new follower, structure, organization, ideology - Total project for remaking societies - Both Stalin and Hitler represent this Doublethink – state and totalitarian nirvana of mind, they believe and don’t believe altogether - A hideous logic for the ideology of Hitler and Stalin - All totalitarian theories are paranoid - Requires a type of madness - Totalitarian never says its truly liberal - No concessions with totalitarians How much do domestic structures affect foreign industry? Are democracies clueless? Totalitarianism makes states more aggressive An overreaction to the response against totalitarianism? Would there have been WWII if Nazi Germany did not invade Poland but did have the holocaust? Terms: kame Nkrumah, Bandung conference, world revolution of westernization, time not task, brown vs. Topeka, Rosa parks The process of decolonization - A new kind of international relations - Political and cultural affect foreign policy? Tst third world? Categorizations 1 world: west, capitalism, 1 world (b) – communist world, previously colonized - Notions arising from colonized lands are on the whole have all the desirable qualities of st
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