Disability, and Health and Education in International Development (I)

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University of Ottawa
International Development and Globalization
Sonia Gulati

March 10, 2014 • Final Exam; o Last year, 40% sitting at 80% or higher. o New set of office hours to view exam will be posted. Men and Women: Self-Reported Health Status • Social determinants of health ; o Women ;  In no region of the world, are men and women equal in legal, economic, or social rights (women make around 76% of men’s earnings performing the same job). Women are more likely to be poor and suffer from poor health.  Reduce access to paid work  Lower wages  Increased care-giving responsibilities  Socio-cultural restrictions imposed on women  Inequalities in how household resources are allocated • Ie. If food resources are limited in a low-income household, the mother is the last person to eat.  Lack of access to health services, such as prenatal care  1 in 3 experience sexual abuse (does not only define as rape, but harassment and threats) • More likely in the private domain (from loved ones)  More likely to be diagnosed with panic disorders, depression, and other mental illness and are also more sensitive to stress  More likely to seek preventative or early-stage care in treating illness  Women live longer than men in almost every country in the world and women’s life expectancy has increased more than men’s • Effective birth control is an important cause of the decline in the mortality rate worldwide o Five births per woman in 1960, now 2.5 births per woman  Pregnancy—too many, too close together are a threat to the health of mother and child • Ie. Malnutrition results in women’s body being undernourished o Less illegal/unsafe abortions; many people still quite against legalisation of abortion, as they believe people will abuse it as a form of birth-control  Untrue as abortion is physically and emotionally- draining and research supports that it will only be used as an emergency response  More likely to be hospitalized for suicidal ideation o Men ;  More likely to face occupational hazards and die as a result of their injuries  These ‘accidents’ can be intentional or unintentional  More likely to engage in higher-risk employment • Handling unsafe chemicals • Working construction/transportation • Work in emergency-related work  More likely to face abuse in the public domain  Gay men more likely to deal with sexual violence  Men face same types of communicable illness—but women experience them more frequently, and die less frequently  Nonfatal chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, are more prevalent in men, as well as obesity and high cholesterol  Less likely to access the healthcare system • More likely to succeed at dying from suicide • A handful of health problems are reported more often by men are more often causes of fatality • Men have increased rates of high-risk activities (ie. Motor vehicle accidents), and are at greater risk of dying during period of high instability • Male rates likely to be under-reported; do not access the health system as often or report poor health Use of health services globally o Common barriers experienced by women ;  Distance  Cost  Health literacy  Caregiving responsibility  Less control of resources to pay for healthcare services  May need accompaniment by a male and thus must wait for someone to take them  Shame o Common barriers experienced by men ;  Cost  Work hours
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