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Lecture 8

MUS1301 Lecture 8: MUS1301 - classical era pt. 2Premium

5 pages63 viewsFall 2015

Department
Music
Course Code
MUS 1301
Professor
Genvieve Bazinet
Lecture
8

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MUS1301 – Classical Era pt. 2
Listener's expectations: there was a standardization of genres and form which lead audiences
to expect certain things from each concert
Form: sonata-allegro, rondo, solo concerto **Four movement symphony form
Genre: symphony in four movements, string quartet in four movements, solo concerto
in three movements
Theme and variation form:
-Hayden the first composer to use theme and variation in a symphony (audience loved
it at its first performance)
-Surprise symphony no. 94 movement 2
-simple binary form AB (theme) variation 1: AABB followed by variation 2, 3, 4 and
coda
Rondo form:
-statement of the refrain alternate with contrasting sections
-one of the oldest forms
-must have at least 3 statements of refrain, and at least two contrasting sections (ABACA or
ABACABA)
-usually light and quick, usually the last movement
-slightly different from ritornello
-Haydens trumpet concerto in Eb major third movement (this predicted the continued
development of the trumpet- ie. Addition of valves) in extended rondo form (ABABACABA)
String quartet:
- created by joseph Hayden, chamber music
-two violins, viola, cello
-four movement form: fast slow minuet fast
-not performed in concert halls until the romantic era
-The Emperor Quartet second movement by Hayden (theme and variation form,
honoured emperor Franz 11, used as national anthems for Austria and Germany)
Hayden's humour:
-Symphony No. 45 "farewell symphony", in the final movement Hayden gradually
reduces the number of instruments
-String quartet "The joke", plays with listeners expectations of the form, uses an altered
and manipulated rondo form
Sonata allegro form:
-Mozart symphony No. 40 in G minor first movement, exposition: antecedent
consequent, development: slight change of notes by inversion, recapitulation: transition
theme is extended with brief coda (second third and fourth movements follow
symphonic conventions)
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Classical concerto:
-Large scale multi movement work for soloist and orchestra
-Impressive performers used
-Three movements (symphony structure with no minuet)
-Mozart composed 23 piano concertos (for his own performance mostly)
-Piano concerto in A major first movement: Piano and orchestra in give and take,
written for his student Barbara Ployer, sonata allegro form, double exposition
(orchestra plays exposition followed by soloist), new lyrical melody in the strings at the
expected end of the second exposition
-**Trills become signals for something new or exciting is about to happen
Hayden and Mozarts classical sonata:
-simpler piece
-three movement
-light style, simple accompaniment
-played by professionals and amateurs
-eg. Mozarts K. 332 (not on exam)
Beethoven: (bridge to romanticism)
Expanded classical forms and genres
His gradual deafness showed struggle and victory (this is shown in his music), he was
an independent professional composer
Career in three periods:
-Early (1770-1802) similar to Hayden and Mozart's works
-Heroic period (1803-1813) begin to hear in his music about his struggle for victory
-Final years (1814-1827)
Early years:
-came from a family of musicians
-Father was an abusive alcoholic (wanted Beethoven to be a second Mozart)
-1787 moved to Vienna to study with Haydn (influenced his development), gained entry
into wealthy houses with his talent and therefore support from wealthy patrons
(promised a lifelong annuity and given no deadlines for his compositions unlike Haydn
and Mozart)
-Played loudly, forcefully, and violently (different than others in Vienna)
-The beginning of free "artists" rather than servants who depended on contracts to make their
money
Beethoven's classical sonata (vs. The older Mozart and Haydn sonata):
-Use the same forms as Haydn and Mozart but his sonata is louder, longer, and more
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