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How to write a philosophical essay.docx

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Daniel Kofman

How to write a good philosophical essay 1. Be pedantic. That is, explain everything, including stating fully the premises of an argument, and providing thumbnail definitions of state-of-the-art terms. Never use a state-of-the-art term such as ‘foundationalist’, ‘coherentitist’, ‘realist’, etc. unless you have provided a brief definition somewhere so that the reader can refer back and hold you to it, verifying that you are using the term consistently with your definition. (If you defined more than one sense, be clear later which sense you are using). 2. Show awareness of the best arguments against your own view. Don’t ignore the strongest objections or create straw men that are easy to knock down. In any major controversy there will be opposing considerations. Develop the discipline of striving to criticise your own view, not just to defend it, and try to anticipate all reasonable objections. Be intellectually honest, and be ready to modify or even abandon a view you wished to defend if you can’t answer an objection. It is sometimes perfectly respectable, as well, to state that you can’t take sides on some issue, as long as you have articulated good reasons why neither side is more appealing. 3. Refute or neutralise the opposing considerations to the best of your ability. It is not enough simply to cite opposing views and then announce that you agree with the other side. You have to argue this out by defeating or sidelining the objections. But be sure that you have first shown the appeal of the rival view as fairly as possible; this will only strengthen and add subtlety to your position. 4. By all means use secondary sources (commentaries on the main texts) to help make various points, and to familiarise yourself with the main positions on an issue. But always, YOU must take responsibility for any point that you make. It doesn’t lend authority to your point that so-and-so happens to say the same thing: if the reader can disagree with you the reader can also disagree with your famous commentator. So you may say, “As Dancy points out…”, etc., since then you are responsible for defending the point if it requires defense. But the fact that he or she said it doesn’t prove it’s true. You may also, of course, make an important point by disagreeing with a commentator. 5. Avoid wasting valuable time and space with flowery introductions and irrelevant rhetoric and information, including biographical facts. No need, for instance, to say: “Hume is one of the most important…”; go straight to the arguments. 6. Avoid announcing your undefended opinions, or telling the reader how firmly you believe some view. Of course, you must elaborate and defend your view, but do so with argumentation, where your view is the conclusion of an argument. Phrases such as ‘in my opinion’, ‘I am firmly convinced’generally introduce irrelevant sentenc
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