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David Raynor

PHI1104E Great Philosophers January 8 , 2014 Thales BC 625-550 Socrates BC 480-399 What is Philosophy? • The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence • The study of wisdom (Sophia) • Love (Philo) • The LOVE of WISDOM = Philosophy The Presocratics • Philosophers before Socrates • Explain the Nature of the Universe – COSMOS to refer to the Universe • Give speculative accounts to the Nature of the Universe • They took for granted that the Universe was at a state of CHAOS moved to a state of COSMOS. • Thought of the Universe as always being here, that it was just different at one point in time (chaos) and moved to an ordered time (cosmos) Cosmogeny • Theory of the creation of the Universe. Anaxagoras ( 500-428 BC) • brought to trial for impiety • First Presocratic who activated inAthens • Teacher of Pericles • In contrast to Socrates, and probably with the political help of Pericles, he exiled and died in Lampsacus. PHI1104E Great Philosophers January 8 , 2014 • He wrote a book in prose, called “On Nature” Cosmogony • ForAnaxagoras, in the beginning of the cosmos there was not one but two principles that were infinite and everlasting in Nature • 1) Mind (Nous) and • 2) The Primeval Mixture (Migma) • In the beginning ‘everything was in everything’ • The Revolutionary Formation of the cosmos started when the infinite “seeds” (Spermata) within the primeval mixture separated from the mixture by the motive power of mind. Mind initiated the rotation of the “seeds” resulting in the predominantly heavy parts coming to the center of the vortex Pre-Socratic Philosophers • Thales (Water/earth/air/fire --- all made up of water) • Parmenides (Unchanging/warm) • Heraclitus (Universe is constantly in change, in flux) • Democritus - The way the world appears to be is di
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