Jan. 9, 2014
• Avalue: something of importance. The term has often been used in describe “the good.”
The term values as a plural, only is a very recent coinage. We are looking at value
objectively, in theAristotelian sense. Not like plurality of values. This course is
normative inquiry, what is important, objectively? Of course, your objective view could
be that there are no objective values.
• The relation between values and principles - issuing a directive about how to act, ought,
• Typically, values/goods can be denoted by a single nominative phrase/word (justice,
liberty, social harmony).
• Aprinciple is typically denoted by a full sentence (one ought to..., one should...)
Promoting a value, directing you to realize a value…
Basic structure of the book:
1. Glaucon &Adeimentus challenge Socrates to show that justice is an intrinsic and
instrumental good, and not only instrumentally valuable (because of the reputation for
• (But Plato conflates intrinsic goodness with: advantageous to the just person).
• Challenge to Socrates: prove that the just person with a false reputation of being
unjust is better off than the unjust person with a false reputation of being just.
• Glaucon &Adeimentus: Instrumental advantage of justice: to avoid
(anachronistically) Hobbes’war of all against all. But not intrinsic good (ring of
(Beware: JuliaAnnas confuses instrumental view with consequentialism)
Notice: Plato could have defended moral realism - it’s wrong to do injustice - independently of
whether being really just is advantageous to just