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Lecture

HOBBES Reading.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI2394
Professor
Jon Miller
Semester
Fall

Description
SelectionsfromThomasHobbesLeviathan1651IntroductionNATUREtheartwherebyGodhathmadeandgovernstheworldisbytheartofmanasinmanyotherthingssointhisalsoimitatedthatitcanmakeanartificialanimalForseeinglifeisbutamotionoflimbsthebeginningwhereofisinsomeprincipalpartwithinwhymaywenotsaythatallautomataenginesthatmovethemselvesbyspringsandwheelsasdothawatchhaveanartificiallifeForwhatistheheartbutaspringandthenervesbutsomanystringsandthejointsbutsomanywheelsgivingmotiontothewholebodysuchaswasintendedbytheArtificerArtgoesyetfurtherimitatingthatrationalandmostexcellentworkofNaturemanForbyartiscreatedthatgreatLEVIATHANcalledaCOMMONWEALTHorSTATEinLatinCIVITASwhichisbutanartificialmanthoughofgreaterstatureandstrengththanthenaturalforwhoseprotectionanddefenseitwasintendedandinwhichthesovereigntyisanartificialsoulasgivinglifeandmotiontothewholebodythemagistratesandotherofficersofjudicatureandexecutionartificialjointsrewardandpunishmentbywhichfastenedtotheseatofthesovereigntyeveryjointandmemberismovedtoperformhisdutyarethenervesthatdothesameinthebodynaturalthewealthandrichesofalltheparticularmembersarethestrengthsaluspopulithepeoplessafetyitsbusinesscounselorsbywhomallthingsneedfulforittoknowaresuggesteduntoitarethememoryequityandlawsanartificialreasonandwillconcordhealthseditionsicknessandcivilwardeathLastlythepactsandcovenantsbywhichthepartsofthisbodypoliticwereatfirstmadesettogetherandunitedresemblethatfiatortheLetusmakemanpronouncedbyGodintheCreationTheFirstPartOfManChapterIOfSenseCONCERNINGthethoughtsofmanIwillconsiderthemfirstsinglyandafterwardsintrainordependenceupononeanotherSinglytheyareeveryonearepresentationorappearanceofsomequalityorotheraccidentofabodywithoutuswhichiscommonlycalledanobjectWhichobjectworkethontheeyesearsandotherpartsofmansbodyandbydiversityofworkingproducethdiversityofappearancesTheoriginalofthemallisthatwhichwecallsenseforthereisnoconceptioninamansmindwhichhathnotatfirsttotallyorbypartsbeenbegottenupontheorgansofsenseTherestarederivedfromthatoriginalToknowthenaturalcauseofsenseisnotverynecessarytothebusinessnowinhandandIhaveelsewherewrittenofthesameatlargeNeverthelesstofilleachpartofmypresentmethodIwillbrieflydeliverthesameinthisplaceThecauseofsenseistheexternalbodyorobjectwhichpresseththeorganpropertoeachsenseeitherimmediatelyasinthetasteandtouchormediatelyasinseeinghearingandsmellingwhichpressurebythemediationofnervesandotherstringsandmembranesofthebodycontinuedinwardstothebrainandheartcauseththerearesistanceorcounterpressureorendeavourofthehearttodeliveritselfwhichendeavourbecauseoutwardseemethtobesomematterwithoutAndthisseemingorfancyisthatwhichmencallsenseandconsistsastotheeyeinalightorcolourfiguredtotheearinasoundtothenostrilinanodourtothetongueandpalateinasavourandtotherestofthebodyinheatcoldhardnesssoftnessandsuchotherqualitiesaswediscernbyfeelingAllwhichqualitiescalledsensibleareintheobjectthatcausesthembutsomanyseveralmotionsofthematterbywhichitpressesourorgansdiverselyNeitherinusthatarepressedaretheyanythingelsebutdiversemotionsformotionproducesnothingbutmotionButtheirappearancetousisfancythesamewakingthatdreamingAndaspressingrubbingorstrikingtheeyemakesusfancyalightandpressingtheearproducesadinsodothebodiesalsoweseeorhearproducethesamebytheirstrongthoughunobservedactionForifthosecolorsandsoundswereinthebodiesorobjectsthatcausethemtheycouldnotbeseveredfromthemasbyglassesandinechoesbyreflectionweseetheyarewhereweknowthethingweseeisinoneplacetheappearanceinanotherAndthoughatsomecertaindistancetherealandveryobjectseeminvestedwiththefancyitbegetsinusyetstilltheobjectisonethingtheimageorfancyisanotherSothatsenseinallcasesisnothingelsebutoriginalfancycausedasIhavesaidbythepressurethatisbythemotionofexternalthingsuponoureyesearsandotherorgansthereuntoordainedChapterIIOfImaginationTHATwhenathingliesstillunlesssomewhatelsestirititwillliestillforeverisatruththatnomandoubtsofButthatwhenathingisinmotionitwilleternallybeinmotionunlesssomewhatelsestayitthoughthereasonbethesamenamelythatnothingcanchangeitselfisnotsoeasilyassentedtoFormenmeasurenotonlyothermenbutallotherthingsbythemselvesandbecausetheyfindthemselvessubjectaftermotiontopainandlassitudethinkeverythingelsegrowswearyofmotionandseeksreposeofitsownaccordlittleconsideringwhetheritbenotsomeothermotionwhereinthatdesireofresttheyfindinthemselvesconsistsFromhenceitisthattheschoolssayheavybodiesfalldownwardsoutofanappetitetorestandtoconservetheirnatureinthatplacewhichismostproperforthemascribingappetiteandknowledgeofwhatisgoodfortheirconservationwhichismorethanmanhastothingsinanimateabsurdlyWhenabodyisonceinmotionitmovesunlesssomethingelsehinderiteternallyandwhatsoeverhindersitcannotinaninstantbutintimeandbydegreesquiteextinguishitandasweseeinthewaterthoughthewindceasethewavesgivenotoverrollingforalongtimeaftersoalsoithappensinthatmotionwhichismadeintheinternalpartsofamanthenwhenheseesdreamsetcForaftertheobjectisremovedortheeyeshutwestillretainanimageofthethingseenthoughmoreobscurethanwhenweseeitAndthisisittheLatinscallimaginationfromtheimagemadeinseeingandapplythesamethoughimproperlytoalltheothersensesButtheGreekscallitfancywhichsignifiesappearanceandisaspropertoonesenseastoanotherImaginationthereforeisnothing
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