Chapter 2 – bio ethics
The ethical allocation of resources
How should scare goods including medical goods be distributed?
- Health care like, drinking water, bridges, and other infrastructure is a shred commodity.
Vs. Free market
Kant: distributive justice attempts to distribute goods fairly. But pay or health care allows important
good to be bought by those with $ which is irrelevant to justice – internal operating principal (holy)
Utility – inefficient US model spends more money and gets less benefits. – let’s look at cost vs. benefit.
US has more costs than benefits
Health care was attuned ot nature and body rhythms
Death was more accepted part of the life cycle
All beings are defined by their limit (peras) which makes the thing what it is.
- Respect for natural being of things (natural development). When Aristotle talks about virtue –
seek the mean, be moderate. Being moderate, we’re not trying to be something we’re not.
We’re trying to claim our own being – be comfortable with who we are, where we are in our life
(our fate). Comfortable with our personal biography, comfortable with our family, comfortable
with where we live – don’t push boundaries.
Nature is mechanical (biology is chemistry)
Science is the exercising “dominion and control over nature”
Death is a problem to solved
The body is a medical phenomenon.
- Scientific revolution – Francis Bacon.
- Control body/control nature and force it/ament it so these natural limits of life and death are
Can justify privileging some who may be of great benefit to society with scarce health care
resources (rare organ transplants, continuous blood transfusion, etc) – model from book. In
Kantian – take a random sampling bc everyone is an equal as everyone else.
Cannot answer to fairness of not treating all equally. Deontological approaches:
Fairness to each is primary
- Blind to age, disability, income, etc
- Choosing opens the door to discrimination, persuasion, ec
- Examples: first come, first served or random selection
- BUT: resources will be used inefficiently. Itself, ethically problematic – kidney to an old man
equal to giving a kidney to a teenager. In terms of efficiency – doesn’t seem just (so much
Virtue based approaches
Situate care not just as part not just medical/technological (an extreme technological
manipulation of body) but address the relational/spiritual as well. (Theres more than just
physical aspect of life)
Help people die well