New Reproductive Technologies
Popular new reproductive technologies in Canada:
Embryo cryopreservation, therapeutic donor, insemination, epididymal sperm aspiration,
ovum donor, gestational carrier (surrogate mothering) intrauterine insemination, IVF,
intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oocyte freezing, womb outsourcing. Surrogate mothering
– the carrier comes from a 3 world country, cheaper, no legal obstacle. It is gaining
popularity, benefits from both sides.
According to the 2008 reports of the Canadian Fertility and Andrology society there are
between 25 and 27 fertility clinics in Canada
IVF is the most popular method of assisted reproduction. The success rate of overall live
birth for IVF in Canada, according to the 2008 reports of CFAS 28% per cycle (compared to
26% in 2007 and 13% a decade ago.)
IVF procedures are quite costly. A complete IVF procedure which includes a sperm wash, as
well oocyte freezing, could cost over $44000
- Embryo created in lab then inserted into womb – fertilization happens outside
A big portion of the IVF cost is covered under OHIP, but there are still expenses that are out
of pocket. The Ontario government is considering a plan to finance up to three cycles.
(Should tax payers pay for something not essential?
Pregnancy reduction issues occurring from IVF (look up)
Controversies surrounding IVF
- Cost and invasiveness (including induced miscarriages in the first trimester which are
sometimes referred as abortions)
- The fate of the embryos that are not going to be used for implantation (they’re normally
discarded but they could be used for research)
- Practicing of eugenics – selecting specific traits – good genes to produce the best
possible child, through selecting the best embryo(s) for implantation
Christine Overall in her “Access to in Vitro Fertilization: Costs, care and Consent” focuses on
the situation of women in NRT since women are the most affected to be the fertility
Two types of particular rights to be distinguished (often conflated): the right to reproduce
and the right to not reproduce
The right not to reproduce: we are entitled not to bear or raise children against our wills.
This right requires that we allow unlimited access to contraception and abortion
The right to reproduce: has a weak and strong sense.
o Weak sense: a negative right, a right not to be interfered or prevented from
o Strong sense: the right to receive all necessary assistance to reproduce (in term of
all access to all government funding, fertility programs, technologies, etc.)
The strong sense of the right to reproduce requires that we all make the NRT available and
accessible to people who want to procreate
Overall believes that there is no such right to reproduce in the strong sense. Her reasons are
feminist reasons – reformed feminist 1. This right will give access to the bodies, reproduction organs and reproductive labor of women.
(if you believe in the strong sense)
2. Might lead to the practice of eugenics
3. The right to reproduce require violation of some women’s right not to reproduce (if we don’t
specify between those two senses = conflict)
4. Thus, the author concludes, we cannot argue that the use of NRT is justified by reference to an
alleged right to reproduce in the strong sense (feminist against the new reproduction
The reality of the IVF practice: fertility clinics screen (all are at a lot of stake, want to ensure you will
be able to pay for the procedure and care for the new baby after – feminist argue what does those
have to do with the procedure – discrimina