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PLN 2102 (5)
Lecture 1

PLN2102 Lecture 1: Gentry Democracy, Royal Republic

by OneClass402944 , Fall 2015
3 Pages
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Department
Polish
Course Code
PLN 2102
Professor
Richard Sokoloski
Lecture
1

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Gentry Democracy The Royal Republic 1572-1795
1. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the peak of its power. Multi-ethnic
nature of the state. Establishment of Warsaw as the new more centrally
located capital 1596.
2. Monarchy elected by the ‘szlachta’. Extensive limitations placed on
royal power. Henry de Valois (Henryk Walezy) elected as first king.
Resigns to ascend the throne of France.
3. Political power invested in the ‘Sejm’ (Parliament). ‘Liberum veto’
power to annul. All legislation passed by unanimous consent.
4. King Stefan Bathory (1576-1586) victories wars over Ivan the Terrible
of Muscovy. Polish armies occupy Moscow (1611), eventually forced to withdraw.
5. Seventeenth century- ‘The Century of Wars’. Rise of the Jesuit Order,
the Counter-Reformation. Union of Brest (1596), Uniate faith promulgated
in Ukraine. Beginnings of religious, ethnic and social revolts. The Kiev
Academy founded 1632.
6. Uprising by Ukrainian Cossacks 1648. Significant portion of Ukraine
placed under Tsar’s protection.
7. Swedish invasion of Poland 1655. Expelled at Częstochowa, The ‘Black
Madonna’, Blessed Virgin venerated as nation icon of Poland.
8. Prussian presence on North Poland formalized.
9. Rise of Muscovy (Russia). Ukraine divided between Poland and Russia.
10. King Jan Kazimierz 1668, ineffectual attempts to bolster royal
authority. Warnings of the danger of undermining King’s authority.
11. 'Szlachta' retains grip on its ‘Golden Freedom’, political, economic,
civil privileges.
12. ‘Sarmatian’ cult of the nobility. Chivalric tradition. Rural based,
anti-foreign attitudes, hereditary right to govern. ‘Antemurale
Chritianitatis’, Poland the ‘Bulwark of Christendom’, easternmost part of
Catholic Europe.
13. Sarmatian Baroque. Western (architecture) and Eastern influences
(dress, hair, jewelry). Coffin portraits, full-length portraits.
14. ‘Husaria’, Polish winged cavalry, the glory of Poland’s military might.
Turkish invasion of Europe. Successful defense of Vienna (1683) by King
Jan Sobieski. Final military victory of the Republic.
15. Decline of the Republic politically, economically, socially,
culturally.
17. The Great Northern War 1709 (Sweden-Russia), devastation of the Republic.
18. Calls for reform (Leszczynski), resistance by the nobility of any
manner of reform. Conspiracy of ‘The Three Eagles’. Russia, Prussia,
Austria aid and abate the retention of the status quo in the Republic.
Descent into anarchy.
19. The Enlightenment, attempts to reform the republic. King Stanislaw
August Poniatowski (reigned 1764-1795). Art to rejuvenate national life,
National Theatre created. The Commission on Education, the first in Europe.
Enlightenment architecture ‘Lazienki’. Foreign artists, Bacciarelli,
Canoletto.
20. Failure to reform situation of the urban population and the peasantry.
First Partition of Poland 1772 (Russia, Prussia, Austria).
22. ‘Third of May' Constitution 1791. Second in the world. Noble power
proscribed. Sharing of power with royal authority and other classes.
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Description
Gentry Democracy – The Royal Republic 1572-1795 1. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the peak of its power. Multi-ethnic nature of the state. Establishment of Warsaw as the new more centrally located capital 1596. 2. Monarchy elected by the ‘szlachta’. Extensive limitations placed on royal power. Henry de Valois (Henryk Walezy) elected as first king. Resigns to ascend the throne of France. 3. Political power invested in the ‘Sejm’ (Parliament). ‘Liberum veto’ power to annul. All legislation passed by unanimous consent. 4. King Stefan Bathory (1576-1586) – victories wars over Ivan the Terrible of Muscovy. Polish armies occupy Moscow (1611), eventually forced to withdraw. 5. Seventeenth century- ‘The Century of Wars’. Rise of the Jesuit Order, the Counter-Reformation. Union of Brest (1596), Uniate faith promulgated in Ukraine. Beginnings of religious, ethnic and social revolts. The Kiev Academy founded 1632. 6. Uprising by Ukrainian Cossacks 1648. Significant portion of Ukraine placed under Tsar’s protection. 7. Swedish invasion of Poland 1655. Expelled at Częstochowa, The ‘Black Madonna’, Blessed Virgin venerated as nation icon of Poland. 8. Prussian presence on North Poland formalized. 9. Rise of Muscovy (Russia). Ukraine divided betweenPoland and Russia. 10. King Jan Kazimierz 1668, ineffectual attempts to bolster royal authority. Warnings of the danger of undermining King’s authority. 11. 'Szlachta' retains grip on its ‘Golden Freedom’, political, economic, civil privileges. 12. ‘Sarmatian’ cult of the nobility. Chivalric tradition. Rural based, anti-foreign attitudes, hereditary right to govern. ‘Antemurale Chritianitatis’, Poland the ‘Bulwark of Christendom’, easternmost part of Catholic Europe. 13. Sarmatian Baroque. Western (architecture) and Eastern influences (dress, hair, jewelry). Coffin portraits, full-length portraits. 14. ‘Husaria’, Polish wingedcavalry, the glory of Poland’s military might. Turkish invasion of Europe. Successful defense of Vienna (1683) by King Jan Sobieski. Final military victory of the Republic. 15. Decline of the Republic – politically, economically, socially, culturally. 17. The Great Northern War 1709 (Sweden-Russia), devastation of the Republic. 18. Calls for reform (Leszczynski), resistance by the nobility of any manner of reform. Conspiracy of ‘The Three Eagles’. Russia, Prussia, Austria aid and abate the retention of the status quo in the Republic. Descent into anarchy. 19. The Enlightenment, attempts to reform the republic. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski (reigned 1764-1795). Art to rejuvenate national life, National Theatre created. The Commission on Education, the first in Europe. Enlightenment architecture ‘Lazienki’. Foreign artists, Bacciarelli, Canoletto. 20. Failure to reform situation of the urban population and the peasantry. First Partition of Poland 1772 (Russia, Prussia, Austria). 22. ‘Third of May' Constitution 1791. Second in the world. Noble power proscribed. Sharing of power with royal authority and other classes. Modern standing army created. ‘Liberum veto’ abolished. 23. Swift reaction by partitioning powers (Russia, Prussia), Second Partition of Poland 1793. 24. Kosciuszko Uprising against Russia 1794. Emancipation of the peasantry proclaimed. Initial successes, eventual suppression by Russia. Third Partition of Poland (Russia, Prussia, Austria) 1795. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth erased from the map of Europe. Poles a nation without a country. Romantic and Modern Poland 1. Attempts to regain independence. Support sought from the French Revolution. Alliance with Napoleon. Creation of ‘Polish Legions’. 2. Napoleon creates ‘The Duchy of Warsaw’ (1807-1814), new constitution
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