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1- The Constitutive Elements of Democracy:
-Will of the People
-Elections
-Rights and Rule of Law (Liberalism)
-Government by Representation
-Social Citizenship?
2- Political Regimes:
-Democracy (Elections + Rights), Authoritarianism (Power in hand of one or few rulers),
Totalitarianism (Like authoritarianism but requires action of citizenry to change the state, more
ideological).
-The case of illiberal democracies (they hold elections, but do not have rights).
3-Democratization:
-Past and Future.
The Three Waves of Democratization
1) 1820s-WW1: Notion of rights gaining credibility, gradual process of universal suffrage.
Produced solid democracies
2) WW1-1970s: Surprisingly produced democracy in places with no previous democracy.
Similarity with First wave is that there was enough wealth and literacy to develop the
democracies.
3) 1970s-2000s: Democratization of most of Europe. Fall of Soviet Union and Berlin Wall. EU
framing transitions to democratization.
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