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POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 17 Mar. 03.docx

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Political Science
Mark Salter

POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 17 Mar. 03 The Cold War andAfter • The confrontation between the USA& the USSR • The tensions ultimately shaped what came to follow The Origins of the Cold War, 1945-1950 • TheAtlantic Charter • Dumbarton Oaks Conference of 1944 - Formulated the UN - Best to involve the Soviets in the UN Security Council - China (not yet communist, ally of the West) included in the SC to act as a check against the Soviets • Yalta Conference of 1945 - It would be the first flare-up of the first Cold War (tensions on the European continent, second involving the third world) - Determined how Germany would be treated (after WWII), would be divided into allied occupation zones, Britain occupies North Germany, etc. • The PotsdamAgreement of 1945 - Adeclaration of zones of influence, dictating where are the US’s and Soviet’s influence - Some areas unresolved, such as eastern Europe - Potsdam, where Stalin finds about US’nuclear bomb Key Moments 1. The Iran Crisis of 1946 2. The Greek Civil War (Mar. 1946) • Perception that the Soviets are aiding the Greek Communists despite Moscow having known that Greece was lost as a zone of influence • Americans formulated the Domino theory in response to the above, which was if one country became communist, its neighbors would as well 3. Sept. 1946 • The USAannounces that it intends to unify the western zones of Germany • The Soviets fear that this unification may be the launching pad for an anti-Soviet alliance 4. The Truman Doctrine is formulated • Argues for containing the Soviets 5. The Marshall Plan • The USApledges to rebuild Europe as prosperity is the best way to achieve peace • Marshal Plan is extended to the USSR, but Moscow rejects it for ideological & strategic reasons • The Soviets respond with the Molotov Plan in 1949 6. The Berlin Blockade of 1948 • Stalin wanted to make sure that Germany could never again wage war, the idea that if Berlin fell, all of Germany would • The soviets were angry that Berliners rejected Soviet candidates in some election • US airlifts goods into Berlin for a long time, to the Soviets’humiliation 7. The communist coup in Czechoslovakia in 1958 8. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is formed inApril 1949 with multilateralism at its core, i.e. generalized commitments and the recognition of complexity • The combination of NATO, the Marshall Plan, and the Truman Doctrine signalled the beginning of the pax Americana: a liberal order stressing openness, non-discrimination, & the prospect for joint gains, thus representing a shift away from the traditional zero sum game of power (the idea that the only way to win was if someone else loses) 9. The creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) inApril 1949 • Foreign troops are stationed there under an occupation statute 10. The Soviets detonate a nuclear bomb in Sept. 1949 • US no longer had the advantage it had before, now mutually assured destruction (MAD) was possible 11. Due to the Chinese Communist Revolution of 1949, the USAlost an important ally inAsia - China signed a friendship treaty with the USSR The Onset of Conflict, 1950-1969 • Korean War breaks out & it leads to anAmerican build-up of forces in Western Europe based on the belief that it was a distraction from communist infiltration in Western Europe • The UN gets involved in the Korean War • Joseph Stalin dies on Mar. 5, 1953, & is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev • Khrushchev seeks a policy of co-existen
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