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POL2104 (60)
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Department
Political Science
Course
POL2104
Professor
Joseph Roman
Semester
Winter

Description
1) The importance of studying regime type 2) Defining and understanding authoritarianism 3) The how’s and whys of authoritarianism 4) Authoritarian type I Communism 5) Authoritarian type II Fascism 6) Authoritarianism and political instability 7) Liberal democracy 8) Illiberal democracy 9) Varieties of democracy 10)Prospects for democracy The importance of studying regime type - The kind of state you are talking about effects everything - Authoritarian legacies affect the way the citizens relate to the state o No trust in Greece - You can’t treat states homogenously o They all have different features Authoritarianism - Can be traced back to Napoleon Bonapart o Napoleon legitimized his rule through a plephicite - Key features o Becomes an authoritarian regime when 1)? 2)? 3) Strike deals with key constituencies  there are molds of representation within an authoritarian regime  lots of bargaining, etc  will always be difficult to ignore key constituencies • you will eventually have to deal with them • protests – ie. Syria • have to be aware of state and society relations o there is always an individual associated with the regime o rulers in authoritarian regimes are not crazy o tend be organizations  Saddam Hussein – was the ‘leader’ but was part of a party  Often a communist party that rules o Authoritarian states were the norm until 1989 (?)  Thses regimes began to fall and began the process of democratization  The period from 45-89 was communism • Spread of the soviet influence • Support of gov. to be anti-communism • Rise of one party rule o Single party rule or military rule  Generally orginizations  political party= org. military= org.  Isn’t always easy to determine whether or not a particular party is being rule by a single person or an org.  Can be limited or absolute • Ie. North Korea= absolute • China= limited o Dependant on the approval of the communist party  Military Dictatorship—tend to last for years rather than decades • Exception= Spain, Portugal … • Find it difficult to hold onto power for a long period of time • Power is eventually handed back to civilians o Too onerous to rule • Because of militaries purpose – defence of security o Gov. role overpowers their capacities • Open Military Rule = the military does a coop (coup?) o The country is run by a committee of top military officials o Another example is where the top military official becomes the dictator • Disguised Military rule o The regime is civilianized o Citizens are allowed to choose a legislator but at the end of the day this military is always acting behind the scenes  One Party Rule • Longest lasting form • Occurs during a revolution 1) Oh hey I’m the #1 2) Power disapropriated after an election o Mexico – 1910  Used the constitution to its advantage and removed the competition  Absorbed the aspect of civil society • Rises when the other parties are banded or cannot properly compete in an election • A leader can become an absolute dictator through one party rule • Leaders are usual haggard ….  The Whys and Hows of Authoritarian Regime - One of the ways that A.R. obtain legitimacy is ideology o Given a social present through mass media, education system, trade unions …. o Don’t always have to be philosophical o Ie military rule – don’t make any philosophical claims, can always see some ideological claims being made 1) Leaders say they have a prophetic claim to power • Ie. North Korea 2) Organisational right • Secularism 3) We have the right to rule - There are two ways they can rule 1) Totalitarianism  Everything that goes on inside the state is subservient  Always supposed to serve the state • Newspapers, economics, … etc  Very limited pluralism, absence of ideology  Lack of intensive or extensive org.  Limited leadership  They all have some form of secret police • To exercise control • Who is a snitch who is not ? o Helloooo state of paranoia   Political party has its hands in everything • Just autonomous spheres of activity in civil society  Policy making – democratic and authoritarian styles don’t really differ • Policy making is technocratic • Diference= authoritarian gov. intervene in the economy more o Tend to allocate more resources to external and internal something or othere Authoritarian type I Communism - In every Euro country which had est. communist gov—it was never through popular resort o Even the Russian Revolution  Only done through actions in Moscow and St. Petersburg  Very located in these 2 key cities  Russia never had any sort of liberal tradition (much like other sorts of comm. Countries) - The soviet model looked attractive to a lot of people during the great depression o People didn’t really know what was going on in soviet Russia - Reasons it failed … - Put state needs over societal needs o One of the reasons it failed - Had no political legitimacy o Laws and constitutions tend to be very big - Even limited pluralism ate away at the legitimacy - No circulation of elites o The communist parties exercised total and complete power over who would lead them o Party secretaries carried out some shit .. - Arms race o Worsened consumer shortages …. Fascism - Italy 1925 - Spain 1939 - The state is the highest order of life o Your
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