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Sigmund Freud.pdf

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL3102
Professor
Sascha Maicher
Semester
Winter

Description
March 24, 2014 SIGMUND FREUD There's been a change in the conception of self A change in how we reason We started with what the enlightenment was about- finding abstract reason, which is outside of history  Enlightnment's conception of man is a timeless quality o Our biggest abilities were not a result of time  Enlightenment focused on the individual o Individually, we could use our reason to determine what was correct  19th century: who are we are depends on where we are o This is already shift in the enlightenment conception  What is the meaning and goal of this history that we're in? o Optimism  Faith in progress, both scientific, technological and political  Kant in perpetual peace: talked about individual logic and rationality that would lead to advances  Hegel + Marx: logic is no longer as individualistic. Their stories are about societies which determine our level of progress  Nietzsche: moral are rationalizations; has history but does not have faith in rationality, and does not have as much faith in progress; we may be historical creatures, but this isn't necessarily a good thing- reason here is beginning to show its dark side- it is reason that's cutting us off from meaning; looking at history: we don't see society as being as increasingly rational, moral and better- moral beliefs are the result of non rational forces in nature  Humans find themselves in a cold humanistic universe with no reason for doing anything, we feel like a machine just trucking along.  Kant + Nietzsche represent the dominant modes of thought in their time  20th century o Things get worse o Freud + Weber: each in their way get something from Nietzsche and his destabilization of the project of modernity  Freud is going to challenge the importance of reason in determining our behavior and actions  Rationality is not just a source of good- a source of unfreedom rather than freedom.  The less that political thinkers are clear about what people are like, the more difficult it is for them to harmonize them- this is a question of psychology, maybe philosophy.  Gives a theory that is in line with trains of thought of the time o What does his theory mean for the way society is organized? o What is the self we are trying to organize in this society?  Freud found out that a lot of different disciplines weren't talking to each other and because of this, there were many things that weren't being discussed that maybe could have been.  Freud is concerned with sexuality- sexual neuroses and sexual problems  One way to think about Freud: what motivates human behavior? o Answer falls into two camps:  20th c Nietzschians: everything is about power (power in the literal, broad sense)  Freudians: all about sex, all the time  One of the most powerful drives we have is heros(sp)- says a lot about what it means to be a subject, for Freud  What does the idea of the "subject" mean for politics? o Is economics ultimately about psychology?- it is about what you think is best for humans. o Freud's theory is a theory of the self  Sees us having basic, deep, instinctual drives and these motivate our actions.  Biological account, sounds Nietzschian  These drives work in the background, they are not conscious drives  Romantic notion of the self- a deepe "you" to be discovered  We can't access what motivates us using self-refletion because our deep instinctual forces are not there for us to see- human motivation is not transparent.  Using economic theory: what does macroeconomic theory depend on to give it stregnth; universality- some basic assumptions about human
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