Development as a Project of Rule
• Colonization was a project, it was a process that was planned and
implemented in a big picture and a micro sense.
• An agrigate process, one with numerous individual actors.
• Centrality of environmental consequences; the central treatment of the
environment. Throughout the book, the environmental aspect will be
highlighted by McMicheal with the various project of rule. The sustainability
project is made to rectify some of the negative effects.
• Varying forms over time, materialized as shifting sets of political economic-
ecological relations, animated by discourses of discipline, opportunity,
• Project change can be described as different project and ecological changes,
different discourses of opportunity and sustainability.
• It's important to understand social and political transformation through the
nexus of power relations and 'development'.
• When change happens it’s a configuration of powers. What development
means today compared to what it used to mean.
• The globalization process seems to be dominant at some moments and
struggling during other moments.
• Development is realized within social and spatial inequalities (urban and rural)
• View for the 'bottom up'---> resistance via social movement problematized
• Created by a dominant actors (States, institutions and elites).
• Generally top down approach with a state-centric approach.
• What was the purpose of these projects? To order/structure the world and
contain opposition, supposedly for the benefit of everyone, but a critical
analysis reveals narrow benefit & hidden costs.
• Individuals may feel pressured by social changes and technological
• There have been and will continue to have social economic problems whatever
our view is on this instance insists we will see repercussions.
• Each of these projects seems to have hidden costs and narrow benefits.
• Each of these projects propose coherent organizing principles (economic
nationalism, market liberalization), but unrealistic in reality because of
inequality. They create tensions whom undermine the ability of the project
• Resistances aren't always from the bottom but sometimes from corporations
themselves to try and free capital and stop state intervention.
Polanyi's 'Double Movement'
• Historical cycles of regulation and resistance.
• PostWorld War II development era of market regulation, social democracy,
welfare statism, contain labour a d decolonization movement + Cold War
context of military and economic aid to 'Third World'.
• Talked about the shift from free market ideas to regulation as a result of the
Great Depression which is a result of 'fictitious' economic commodities
such as private land and ressources.
• Beyond the competitiveness human beings have certain needs and wants. • Labour reacts when the price is reduced. Some people demand changes when
there's problems you see labour instability.
• The idea was to contain this instability by promoting unions to stop labourers
from going on strike.
• 1970's counter-movement of corporates Teresa's replaces "embedded
liberalism" with a neoliberal project ---> self-regulating market,
liberalization, privitization, capital mobility, SAPs, revamped IMF, WTO.
• States would try to get an upper hand by devaluing their currency to try and
get an upper hand on other countries.
• The purpose of the IMF was to try and fix these imbalances. Keyes though
that if you would have an institution that could give short term loans that
they wouldn't resort to devaluing their currency.
• When the fixed exchange rate fell the purpose of the IMF somewhat
disappeared. It needed to reinvent itself in the 1980's.
• 1990's counter movement in resistance to negative impa to of "globalization
project" ----> global justice movement, LatinAmerica andArab rebellions,
legitimacy crisis in