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Chapter 6 PSY1101

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Najwa Haddad

Prosopagnosia: have sensation but no perception, can’t recognize faces. Face recognition function is believed to be located in the right hemisphere A. Measuring the senses 1. Psychophysics: Study the relationship of physical stimulus and psychologically experience 2. Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulation necessary for us to detect 50% of the chance. This number may vary from ages. 3. Different threshold: detect the minimum changes necessary for us to notice 50% of the time. - Webber’s Law: for the difference to be perceptible, the two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage rather than a constant amount. 4. Signal detection theory: Detection of weak stimulus not only depends on the signal strength, but also our psychological state 5. Subliminal Stimulation: we can still sense stimulation below absolute threshold. B. Sensory Adaptation 1. If exposed to the same stimulus, the stimulus is not changing or threatening, our nerve cells fire less frequently 2. Circum-venting S.A. - No sensory adaptation if there’s intense pain - Eyes flicker all the time, so there will be no constant stimulus, no adaptation. II. Basics of Perception A. Introduction - Brain receive all the info collected by the senses, analyze, organize, and interpret this info in a meaningful way - Top-down processing: we use our past experience or knowledge to interpret B. Influences on Perception 1. Perceptual Set: 2. Context effect: Animal EAP  APE, Vegetables EAP  PEA 3. States of being: physical, mental state will influence and affect our perception III. Vision A. The eye: 1. Light enter the eye through Cornea (focus and protect the eye), then passes through the Pupil, an opening adjustable by the Iris. Behind the pupil is the lens that focus the light onto the Retina. The Central point of focus is called the Fovea (clearest vision) 2. Retina Structure - Rods(more, light, movement, black & white) & Cones(less, color): Sensory receptors. Send info to Bipolar cells  Ganglion cells - Optic nerve: carry info from the eye to the brain, axons of the ganglion cells B. Visual Information Processing 1. Retina: processing data  ganglion cells 2. Visual Cortex: feature detectors: neurons highly specialized to respond to a specific stimulus 3. Parietal & Temporal Lobes - Parietal: where the object is, direct movement toward it - Temporal: What the object is 4. Parallel Processing - Break the image into pieces, different groups is handed to different neurons - As they done analyzing it, they communicate with each other and we see the visual image - Ex. Color, motion, Form, Depth C. Color vision 1. Young-Helmholtz Theory (Trichromatic Theory) - Have three types of cones in our retina, each is especially sensitive to a certain wavelength (Color). When stimulating a combination of these cones, we create other colors. 2. Opponent – Process Theory (Hering) - Trichromatic theory can’t explain Afterimages - Ex. Green  red, yellow  blue, black  white - 4 primary light colors: Red Green Blue Yellow - Cluster of cells that respond to an antagonistic color, excited by one color and inhibited by the other 3. Bottom Line - Both theories hold
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