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Chapter 6 - Sensation and Perception

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Najwa Haddad

Chapter 6Sensation and PerceptionSensation I Basic Principles A The musts of sensationIn order for sensation to happen we mustDetect a specific form of energy in the physical worldTransduction the translation of physical energy into a message the brain can understand ex sound waveTransmissionSensory receptors highly specialized cells in the nervous system that detect the physical energyOther useful definitionPerception when the brain takes the information and organizes it then integrates it and interprets it in a meaningful wayBottomup processing the processing of incoming raw dataTopdown processing filter information through your expectationsProsopagnosia when an area in the right temporal lobe is damaged the person has prosopagnoisa they lose the ability to recognize faces although they can still see themB Measuring the senses 1 Psychophysics a field in psychologyThey study the relationship between the attributes of the physical world and our psychological experience of them 2 Absolute threshold even when our senses can detect physical stimulation these stimulations need to be strongMinimum amount of energy must be there for us to detect it 50 of the time it takes 1 drop of perfume in a three bedroom apartment for us to detect it 50 of the timeAbsolute threshold varies from one person to the nextAbsolute threshold changes for the same person from time to time 3 Difference Threshold JNDcheck full name in bookAlso equally important to detect changes in stimulationThe minimum amount of change in physical stimulation that must be present in order for us to detect it 50 of the timeEx in the shower and the water changes temperatureOur ability to detect the change has to do with how strong the initial stimulus wasWebbers law according to this law the JND is a constant proportion of the initial stimulusEx for weight the JND has to be 2 of the original weight 4 Signal detection theoryAccording to this theory our ability to detect a physical stimulation is not solely dependent on the amount of energy available there are other factors that will make a difference when we are detecting we are also making decisions these decisions can be affected by a number of different variables past experiences motivations ectSignal detection has life and death repercautionsEx xrays notice tumours of bombs in suitcases5 Subluminal stimulationStudy from book will be on the examC Sensory AdaptationDefinition When our sensory receptors have been exposed to an unchanging stimulus they tend to fire lessValue We cannot spend our time and energy on a stimulus that is not dangerous and not changingTurns down the volume of the outside world and makes one able to live in their current worldCircumventing sensory adaptation the body has ways to avoid sensory adaptationEx your eyes are capable of sensory adaptation but the body does not allow it to happenII Vision A The stimulusThere must beLight sun or lamp in the form of electromagnetic radiation which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrumVisible light consists of a number of light waves that have different waves lengths we can only detect light waves between 400nm to 700nm2 physical characteristicsPhysical characteristics translate into psychological characteristics y Wavelengths the distance between the peaks of the waves translates to hue colors o Long wave length translates to red
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