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PSY1102 - Developing Through the Lifespan #1 - Chapter 5

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Najwa Haddad

DEVELOPING THROUGH THE LIFE SPAN (CHAPTER 5) - part 1 1. Introduction - Developmental Psychology - study human psychology and development, study how we change, physically, mentally, emotionally, behaviorally, morally, cognitively... - start from the moment of conception, to death and decay - the 5 major questions - nature/nurture - continuity/stages - stability/change - critical periods - impact of early experiences 2. Prenatal Development and the Newborn 2A. Conception - women are born with all the eggs they will need for a lifetime, they are premature but they are there (this info could change in the future) - men start producing sperm at puberty, and it decreases with age (just less, doesn’t stop) - 1/5000 eggs mature - over 200,000,000 sperm during intercourse - less than half make it to the egg, only 1 penetrates if one does. B. Prenatal Development B1. Three Stages of Prenatal Development - gestation period (from conception to birth) - 1. Germinal Stage - the first 10-14 days (2 weeks) - zygote (baby during this time) - zygote will start dividing into about 100 cells, these cells will begin to differentiate in function and structure. - the zygote will travel from the fallopian tube to the uterus (only half make it) - will attempt to plant into the uterine wall - ones attached, this stage is over - 2. Embryonic Stage - the zygote becomes an embryo - weeks 2-8 - the placenta is formed - the nervous system begins to form and develop - all the major organs begin to form and develop - hands, feet, toes, arms, legs... begin to develop - 3. Fetal Stage - embryo becomes fetus - week 9 - birth - explosive growth of the brain, make about 250 million neurons per minute - can learn in the womb B2. Environmental Influences - baby is well protected in the womb, but still susceptible to some things - teratology - study the causes of birth defects - teratogens - anything that can cause a birth defect - effects of the teratogens depend on: - dose of teratogen - time of exposure - most vulnerable is the embryonic stage - genetic susceptibility - people have different vulnerabilities - boys are more susceptible - english, irish and egyptian lack type of vitamin B, folic acid - more susceptible - prescription and non-prescription drugs - thalidomide - drug to treat morning sickness in the 60’s caused birth defects - psychoactive drugs & alcohol - fetal alcohol syndrome - infectious diseases, HIV, herpes, HPV... - 1/3 of babies who are born vaginally, of mothers who have herpes, will die. - nutrition - emotional states & stress - hot tubs and saunas raise body temperature, can kill baby - age - under 18 and over 40 - higher risk for down syndrome - exposure to environmental hazards - paternal factors: - lack of vitamin C leads to birth defects, childhood cancers... - smoking - can lead to childhood cancers - both of these can lead to the mother miscarrying early - exposure to radiation, pesticides... - age 40 and higher C. The Competent Newborn - for the longest time, parents, doctors and researchers believed that babies only sleep and eat, however babies are actually very complex and tuned in to their environment - we have seriously underestimated their cognitive abilities - can recognize mothers face within hours of being born - they know that they can have control over situations, they get upset when expectations are not met. - brain wave studies, exposed babies to different stimuli and measured electrical activity in the babies brain - use sucking response - if he sucks fast he can listen to lady gaga, if he sucks slowly he can listen to beyonce... only a few days old they figure things out - babies prefer stories they heard in the womb more than stories they never heard before - orienting reflex - react to anything surprising and new in our environment - pay more attention to new things - habituation - tendency from birth to pay less attention to things we have been exposed to time and time again. - competencies: - reflexes - rooting reflex, when you touch the baby, they will turn to the direction of the touch - if you touch their lips, they will suck - they will try to step if you stand them up - babies prefer anything human - within days, babies can recognize smell, prefer the smell of mother 3. Infancy & Childhood 3A. Physical Development - maturation - genetically driven process, genes will determine the exact sequence of development and the age range in which it will happen. - brain development - explosive growth of the brain during infancy and childhood - pruning - brain will get rid of any connections that are not used - maturation and memory - childhood amnesia (adults cannot remember the first few years of our lives) - motor development *** textbook 3B. Cognitive Development - cognition - complex higher order of mental processes - Jean Piaget - revolutionized thinking in cognitive development in children - said minds of children were not the same as adults - children have their own logic
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