PERSONALITY (CHAPTER 13)
- earn a point p.553-572 (9th edition Myers textbook)
2. Contemporary Research on Personality
2A. Evaluating the Trait Perspective
- what is personality?
- typical way we feel, think and behave
- the person - situation controversy
- 2 criticisms:
- it disregards the role of situational and environmental factors
- trait theorists believe traits inﬂuence behaviours
- Mischel - ﬁrst to criticize
- traits are poor predictors of behaviours, behaviours are inconsistent, just
because you know someones trait, doesn’t mean you know what they
are going to do.
- Seymour Epstein
- you are somewhat correct and somewhat wrong...according to him traits are a
poor predictors of behaviours but they are good predictors if you are predicting
on average, across similar situations and behaviours
- doesn’t explain how traits develop in the ﬁrst place
B. The Behavioural Perspective
- completely shaped and controlled by the environment
- undesirable or punishable, unlikely to repeat the behaviour
- personality is nothing more than a set of highly learned responses (behaviour)
C. Social Cognitive Perspective
- personality is the end result of a complex interaction between a number of
different factors. Those factors are social and cognitive in nature.
- much of what we do is learned. We learn through observation and role models.
We also learn directly, when we are punished or rewarded.
- conscious cognitive processes
- we are not passive learners, when we encounter events or situations we
evaluate, judge and interpret. We have assumptions and expectations. These
lead to the goals we choose for ourselves and the behaviours we engage in.
- self-efﬁcacy beliefs
- beliefs about our abilities to perform competently, successfully and positively in
spite of current obstacles.
- situation - environment
- they do matter! they do inﬂuence and effect behaviours.
- reciprocal determinism - the factors are going to interact in a complex matter and there is reciprocal
determinism between them.
C2. Reciprocal Determinism
- mutual causality between 2 or more variables
- A will effect B and B will effect A
- inﬂuence and effect each other.
- behaviour, internal inﬂuences (cognitive) and external/environmental inﬂuences
- ^^ all effect each other, all go both ways
- 3 ways:
- different people will choose different environment
- our personalities shape how we respond to certain situations
- our personalities help to create situations
C3. Personal Control
(see perceived control in chapter 12)
- within the social cognitive perspective
- locus of control
- internal and external
- an internal locus of control - people believe they can control everything in their lives.
- an external locus of control - people believe that their lives are under control by